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VLS user guide
Cyril Deguet
Alexis de Lattre
Copyright © 2002, 2003 the VideoLAN project
This document is the complete user guide of VLS .
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation ; with no Invariant
Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. The text
of the license can be found in the appendix GNU Free Documentation License.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. What is the VideoLAN project ?
1.2. What is a codec ?
1.3. How can I use VideoLAN ?
1.4. Command line usage
2. Installing VLS
2.1. Installing VLS
2.2. Uninstalling VLS
3. Overview and basic concepts
3.1. VLS structure
3.2. Administration interface
4. Configuration
4.1. General structure
4.2. Writing a vls.cfg
5. Running VLS
5.1. Launching VLS
5.2. Using the telnet interface
5.3. Interface commands
A. GNU Free Documentation License
A.1. PREAMBLE
A.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
A.3. VERBATIM COPYING
A.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
A.5. MODIFICATIONS
A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A.9. TRANSLATION
A.10. TERMINATION
A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
List of Figures
1-1. Global VideoLAN solution La solution VideoLAN globale
1-2. Windows terminal
1-3. Linux X terminal
1-4. Mac OS X terminal
1-5. BeOS terminal
3-1. VLS structure
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. What is the VideoLAN project ?
1.1.1. Overview
VideoLAN is a complete software solution for video streaming, developed by
students of the Ecole Centrale Paris and developers from all over the world,
under the GNU General Public License (GPL). VideoLAN is designed to stream
MPEG videos on high bandwidth networks.
The VideoLAN solution includes :
  * VLS (VideoLAN Server), which can stream MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 files,
DVDs, digital satellite channels, digital terrestial television channels
and live videos on the network in unicast or multicast,
  * VLC (initially VideoLAN Client), which can be used as a server to stream
MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 files, DVDs and live videos on the network in
unicast or multicast ; or used as a client to receive, decode and display
MPEG streams under multiple operating systems.
Here is an illustration of the complete VideoLAN solution :
Figure 1-1. Global VideoLAN solution La solution VideoLAN globale
[global-diagram]
More details about the project can be found on the [http://www.videolan.org/]
VideoLAN Web site.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1.2. VideoLAN software
1.1.2.1. VLC
VLC works on many platforms : Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS, *BSD, Solaris,
Familiar Linux, Yopy/Linupy and QNX. It can read :
  * MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 / DivX files from a hard disk, a CD-ROM drive,
...
  * DVDs and VCDs,
  * from a satellite card (DVB-S),
  * MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 streams from the network sent by VLS or VLC's
stream output.
VLC can also be used as a server to stream :
  * MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 / DivX files,
  * DVDs,
  * from an MPEG encoding card,
to :
  * one machine (i.e. to one IP address) : this is called unicast,
  * a dynamic group of machines that the clients can join or leave (i.e. to a
multicast IP address) : this is called multicast,
in IPv4 or IPv6 .
To get the complete list of VLC's possibilities on each plateform supported,
see the VLC features page.
Note VLC doesn't work on Mac OS 9, and will probably never do.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1.2.2. VLS
VLS can stream :
  *  an MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 files stored on a hard drive or on a CD,
  *  a DVD located in a local DVD drive or copied on a hard disk,
  *  a satellite card (DVB-S) or a digital terrestial television card (DVB-T)
,
  *  an MPEG encoding card ;
to:
  * one machine (i.e. to one IP address) : this is called unicast,
  * a dynamic group of machines that the clients can join or leave (i.e. to a
multicast IP address) : this is called multicast,
in IPv4 or IPv6 .
A Pentium 100 MHz with 32 MB of memory should be enough to send one stream on
the network. When streaming a lot of videos stored on a hard drive, the
actual limitation is not the processor but the hard drive and the network
connection.
VLS works under Linux and Windows. To get the complete list of VLS's
possibilities on each plateform supported, see the streaming features page.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.1.2.3. Mini-SAP-server
You can add a channel information service based on the SAP/SDP standard to
the VideoLAN solution. The mini-SAP-server sends announces about the
multicast programs on the network in IPv4 or IPv6, and VLCs receive these
annouces and automatically add the programs announced to their playlist.
The mini-SAP-server works under Linux and Mac OS X.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2. What is a codec ?
To fully understand the VideoLAN solution, you must understand the
difference between a codec and a container format
  *  A codec is a compression algorithm, used to reduce the size of a stream.
There are audio codecs and video codecs. MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, Vorbis,
DivX, ... are codecs
  *  A container format contains one or several streams already encoded by
codecs. Very often, there is an audio stream and a video one. AVI, Ogg,
MOV, ASF, ... are container formats. The streams contained can be encoded
using different codecs. In a perfect world, you could put any codec in
any container format. Unfortunately, there are some incompatibilities.
You can find a matrix of possible codecs and container formats on the
features page
To decode a stream, VLC first demuxes it. This means that it reads the
container format and separates audio, video, and subtitles, if any. Then,
each of these are passed decoders that do the mathematical processing to
decompress the streams .
There is a particular thing about MPEG:
  *  MPEG is a codec. There are several versions of it, called MPEG-1,
MPEG-2, MPEG-4, ...
  * MPEG is also a container format, sometimes refered to as MPEG System.
There are several types of MPEG: ES, PS, and TS
When you play an MPEG video from a DVD, for instance, the MPEG stream is
actually composed of several streams (called Elementary Streams, ES):
there is one stream for video, one for audio, another for subtitles, and
so on. These different streams are mixed together into a single Program
Stream (PS). So, the .VOB files you can find in a DVD are actually
MPEG-PS files. But this PS format is not adapted for streaming video
through a network or by satellite, for instance. So, another format
called Transport Stream (TS) was designed for streaming MPEG videos
through such channels.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3. How can I use VideoLAN ?
1.3.1. Documentation
The user documentation of VideoLAN is made up of 4 documents :
  *  the VideoLAN Quickstart. This document will give you a quick overview of
of VLC, VLC's stream output, the Video On Demand solution and the channel
information service system.
  *  the VideoLAN HOWTO. This document is the complete guide of the VideoLAN
streaming solution.
  *  the VLC user guide. This document is the complete guide for VLC.
  *  the VLS user guide. This document is the complete guide for VLS.
  *  the VideoLAN FAQ. This document contains Frequently Asked Questions
about VideoLAN.
The latest version of these documents can be found on the [http://
www.videolan.org/doc/] documentation page .
You can also have a look at the [http://wiki.videolan.org] VideoLAN Wiki.
This is a website that everyone can change. We use it to document everything
that is not in the "official" documentation: the tips and tricks for each
O.S., the graphical interfaces, etc...
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3.2. User support
If you have problems using VideoLAN, and if you don't find the answer to
your problems in the documentation, please look at the online archive of the
mailing-lists. There are two English-speaking mailing-lists for the users :
  * vlc@videolan.org for the questions on VLC ,
  * streaming@videolan.org for the questions on VLS, mini-SAP-server and the
network .
If you want to subscribe or unsubscribe to the mailing-lists, please go to
the [http://www.videolan.org/support/lists.html] mailing-list page.
You can also talk with VideoLAN users and developers on IRC : server
irc.freenode.net, channel #videolan .
If you find a bug, please follow the instructions on the [http://
www.videolan.org/support/bug-reporting.html] bug reporting page .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4. Command line usage
  *  VLC has many different graphical interfaces, that are organized quite
differently in order to be in harmony with the guidelines of each
operating system supported. Documenting the use of each graphical
interface is too long, and some features are only available via the
command line interface. Therefore we decided to document only the command
line interface, but in many cases it shoud be easy to guess how to use
the graphical interface for the same use !
  *  VLS has a command line and a telnet interface, but no graphical
interface !
All the commands that show up in this document should be typed inside a
terminal. .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4.1. Open a terminal
1.4.1.1. Windows
Click on Start, Run and type :
  * cmd Enter (Windows 2000 / XP),
  * command Enter (Windows 95 / 98 / ME).
The terminal appears Le terminal apparait
Figure 1-2. Windows terminal
[terminal-windows]
Note Under Windows, you need to be in the directory where the program is
installed to run it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4.1.2. Linux / Unix
Open a terminal :
Figure 1-3. Linux X terminal
[terminal-linux]
In the documentation, we adopt the following conventions for the Unix
commands :
  *  commands that should be typed as root have a # prompt :
# command_to_be_typed_as_root
  *  commands that should be typed as a regular user have a % prompt :
% command_to_be_typed_as_regular_user
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4.1.3. Mac OS X
Go to Applications, open the folder Utilities and double-click on Terminal
:
Figure 1-4. Mac OS X terminal
[terminal-macosx]
Note Under Mac OS X, you need to be in the directory where the program is
installed to run it, and start the command with ./ .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4.1.4. BeOS
In the deskbar, go to Application and then Terminal :
Figure 1-5. BeOS terminal
[terminal-beos]
Note Under BeOS, you need to be in the directory where the program is
installed to run it, and start the command with ./ .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 2. Installing VLS
2.1. Installing VLS
2.1.1. Windows
Download the ZIP file from the VLS Windows download page, unzip-it and run
setup.exe .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1.2. GNULinux & Mac OS X
2.1.2.1. Install the libraries
Many libraries are needed for particular uses
  * libdvbpsi (always needed)
  * libdvdcss if you want to be able to access encrypted DVDs ,
  * libdvdread if you want to be able to stream DVDs ,
  * libdvb if you want to be able to stream from a DVB card (a satellite card
or a digital terrestial TV card) .
Download the libraries from the VLS sources download page .
For each library, uncompress, configure (unless for libdvb which doesn't
have a ./configure), compile and install :
% tar xvzf library.tar.gz
% cd library
% ./configure
% make
# make install
Check that the configuration file /etc/ld.so.conf contains the following
line :
/usr/local/lib
If the line is not present, add-it and then run :
# ldconfig
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1.2.2. Install VLS
Download the sources of the latest release : get the file vls-version.tar.gz
from the VLS sources download page. Uncompress-it and generate ./configure :
% tar xvzf vls-version.tar.gz
% cd vls-version
To get the list of configuration options, do
% ./configure --help
Then configure vls :
  *  if you want a basic VLS without DVD support, do :
% ./configure --disable-dvd
  *  if you want a VLS with DVD support, do :
% ./configure
  *  if you want a VLS with DVB support, do :
% ./configure --enable-dvb --with-dvb=PATH_TO_DVB_DRIVERS --with-libdvb=PATH_TO_LIBDVB
Then, compile and install :
% make
# make install
You can also do a make uninstall, make clean or make distclean as needed .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2. Uninstalling VLS
2.2.1. Windows
Go to the Control Panel, click on Add and remove programs, select VLS and
click on Modify/Remove and follow the steps to uninstall the program .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.2. If you compiled VLS from sources
Go to the directory containing VLS sources and run :
# make uninstall
Then you can remove the VLS sources .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 3. Overview and basic concepts
3.1. VLS structure
From a user's point of view, VLS can be divided into four kinds of
components :
  *  a manager ,
  *  inputs ,
  *  converters ,
  *  et des sorties .
Figure 3-1. VLS structure
[archi-vls]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.1. Input
The role of an input is to read MPEG streams from a given source (file, DVD,
DVB card, device, ...), and feed the right converters with these streams. An
input may be able to read several streams, which are called programs. There
are several kinds of inputs :
  *  the local input, which can read videos from files or DVDs ,
  *  the video input, which can read videos from MPEG encoding cards devices
,
  *  the dvb input, which can read videos from DVB cards, l'entrée dvb, qui
peut lire depuis des cartes DVB,
  *  the v4l input, which can read from acquisition cards supported by the
Video4Linux drivers .
You can use several inputs and play several programs at the same time .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.2. Converter
The role of a converter is to receive a stream from an input, and convert it
into the MPEG-TS format. VLS is able to convert PS streams (from DVDs, for
instance) into TS streams (ps2ts converter). Of course, it can also read TS
streams, and fix them by handling stream discontinuities (ts2ts converter) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.3. Channel
A channel receives a stream from a converter, and send it to a given
destination (network, file, ...). If you want, you can call a "channel" an
"output": it is the same thing !). Currently, two kinds of channels are
supported: network and file. Note that, at the moment, VLS can support only
one output per stream, so you cannot play a stream on the network and write
it into a file at the same time. The network output is highly configurable:
you can choose which network interface you want to use, and specify source
and destination IP addresses .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.4. Manager
The manager controls the way streams are sent. Through an administration
interface, you can tell the manager to start, stop, suspend, resume, forward
or rewind the different programs. You can also get a list of all programs
available in the Program Table. The manager gets this table from the VLS
configuration file (vls.cfg), so it cannot be changed once VLS has been
started. At the moment, you cannot ask the manager whether a given stream is
being broadcasted, but you will get an error message if you try to stop a
stream that was not broadcasted .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.2. Administration interface
There are currently two ways to launch the streaming :
  *  you can use the command line to give arguments at startup;
  *  or you can use the telnet interface to start/stop/pause the streaming
whenever you want .
When using the telnet interface, you must authenticate before typing any
command, because any user may not be allowed to execute any command (this can
be configured in the vls.cfg configuration file) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 4. Configuration
VLS reads its configuration from the vls.cfg configuration file, which is
supposed to be located in the current directory or in SYSCONF_DIR/videolan/
vls (where SYSCONF_DIR is /usr/local/etc if you built and installed VLS by
hand, or is /etc if you installed the debian binary package) .
To write a vls.cfg file, use the one supplied with VLS as a start-point .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.1. General structure
VLS configuration file vls.cfg is divided into sections, and each section
may contain several variables :
BEGIN "FirstSection"
Variable1 = "value1"
Variable2 = "value2"
[...]
END
BEGIN "SecondSection"
Variable1 = "value1"
Variable3 = "value3"
[...]
END
[...]
All section names, variable names and values are not case-sensitive. There
can be empty sections and subsections. Comments must follow a # character.
Some variables have a default value; it means that you can ommit to declare
these variables, and then they will be given their default value .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2. Writing a vls.cfg
Here is an explanation of all the sections you can find in a vls.cfg :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.1. Section "Vls"
This section contains application wide settings .
LogFile = "name"
Name of VLS log file. If left empty "", then no logging to files is done.
Default is "vls.log" .
SystemLog = "[disable|enable]"
Logging to the SystemLog. Today, only the SystemLog using syslogd is
implemented: compile with ./configure --enable-syslog .
Caution If VLS is started as vlsd, then the following configuration is
mandatory :
BEGIN "Vls"
LogFile = ""
SystemLog = "enabled"
ScreenLog = "disabled"
END
ScreenLog = "[disable|enable]"
Logging to the console .
Example :
BEGIN "Vls"
LogFile = "vls.log"
SystemLog = "disable"
ScreenLog = "enable"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.2. Section "Groups"
In this section, you can define some groups of users, and which commands
these users are allowed to execute. For each group you want to define, you
must add a line in the following format :
groupname = "command1|command2|..."
This adds a group "groupname", the users of which are allowed to execute
command1, command2, and so on. At the moment, the available commands are:
help, browse, start, suspend, resume, forward, rewind, stop, shutdown, logout
.
Example :
BEGIN "Groups"
monitor = "help|browse|logout"
master = "help|browse|start|resume|suspend|forward|rewind|stop|shutdown|logout"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.3. Section "Users"
This section contains a list of users allowed to control VLS through an
administration interface. For each user, add a line in the following format :
username = "password:groupname"
This adds a user "username", who belongs to the group "groupname" (defined
in the "Groups" section) and can log in with the password "password" .
  *  Under Unix/Linux, the password must be encrypted, with a tool such as
mkpasswd, or with the UNIX function "crypt" .
  *  Under Windows, the password must be in clear text .
Example for Unix/Linux :
BEGIN "Users"
monitor = "3BcKWoiQn0vi6:monitor" # password is 'monitor'
admin = "42BKiCguFAL/c:master" # password is 'Vir4Gv5S'
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.4. Section "Telnet"
In this section, you can configure the telnet administration interface .
LocalPort = "port"
Defines which port will be used for the telnet server. Default port is
"9999" .
Domain = "domain"
Either "inet4" or "inet6" (default is "inet4"). If you want to use IPv4
addresses, put "inet4", and if you want to use IPv6, put "inet6" .
LocalAddress = "IP address"
Defines on which IP address the telnet server will listen for requests.
Default address is "0.0.0.0" (or "0::0" with IPv6) .
Example :
BEGIN "Telnet"
LocalPort = "9999"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.5. Section "NativeAdmin"
Same syntax as "Telnet". Not used yet .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.6. Section "Inputs"
In this section, you can define which inputs you want to use. For each input
you need, add a line in the following format :
InputName = "Type"
This adds a input named "InputName", the type of which is "Type". As
explained before, there are several types of input :
  *  "local" to play a stream from a file or a DVD ,
  *  "video" to play a stream from an MPEG encoding card ,
  *  "dvb" to play a stream from a DVB card ,
  *  "v4l" to play a stream from a Video4Linux device .
Each input must be configured in its own section (see next paragraph) .
Example :
BEGIN "Inputs"
local1 = "local"
pvr = "video"
dvb1 = "dvb"
tuner = "v4l"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.7. Inputs configuration
For each input declared in the "Inputs" section, excepted "local" inputs,
you must add a section with the same name as the corresponding input. For
instance, if you declared an input "pvr", there should be one section named
"pvr" too. The syntax of such sections depends on the type of the
corresponding input .
To configure a local input, you don't have to do anything. Except when
another trickplay strategy must be used :
BEGIN "Local1"
ProgramCount = "1"
TrickPlay = "normal"
END
"Local1" is the name of the local input you want to configure.
"ProgramCount" is the number of programs assigned to this input. "TrickPlay"
is the trickplay strategy that is used by this input (default is "normal") .
To configure a video input, add a section in the following format :
BEGIN "VideoInputName"
Device = "device"
Type = "type"
END
"VideoInputName" is the name of the video input you want to configure.
"Device" is the path of the MPEG encoding card you want to read from (default
is "/dev/video"). "Type" is either "Mpeg2-PS" or "Mpeg2-TS", depending on
your device configuration (default is "Mpeg2-PS") .
Example for a Hauppauge WinTV-PVR-250 card :
BEGIN "pvr"
Device = "/dev/video0"
Type = "Mpeg2-PS"
END
To configure a dvb input, add a section in the following format :
BEGIN "DvbInputName"
DeviceNumber = "devicenumber"
SendMethod = "0"
END
"DvbInputName" is the name of the dvb input you want to configure. Set
"SendMethod" to "0" if you to stream the complete DVB stream and set it to
"1" if you only want to stream the MPEG audio and video streams (default is
"0"). "DeviceNumber" is the number of the DVB device you want to read from
(read from /dev/ost/dvr<devicenumber>, default is ""). The dvb configuration
file is defined by the driver. You can find it in $HOME/.dvbrc for /dev/dvb/
adapter0 or in $HOME/.dvbrc.X for /dev/dvb/adapterX .
Example :
BEGIN "dvb1"
DeviceNumber = "0"
TrickPlay = "normal"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.8. Section "Channels"
In this section, you can define the channels (outputs) you want to use. For
each channel, write a line in the following format :
ChannelName = "Type"
This adds a channel named "ChannelName", the type of which is "Type". "Type"
must be either "network" or "file". Like inputs, channels must be configured
in their own section .
Example :
BEGIN "Channels"
localhost = "network"
client1 = "network"
client2 = "network"
multicast1 = "network"
multicast2 = "network"
localfile = "file"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.9. Channels configuration
For each channel declared in the "Channels" section, you must add a section
with the same name as the corresponding channel. The syntax of such a section
depends on the type of the corresponding channel .
To configure a network channel, add a section in the following format :
BEGIN "NetChannelName"
Domain = "Domain"
Type = "Type"
SrcHost = "SourceHost"
SrcPort = "SourcePort"
DstHost = "DestHost"
DstPort = "DestPort"
TTL = "ttl"
Interface = "Interface"
END
  *  "NetChannelName" is the name of the network channel you want to
configure .
  *  "Domain" is either "inet4" if you use IPv4 addresses, or "inet6" if you
use IPv6 (default is "inet4") .
  *  "Type" is either "unicast", "broadcast" or "multicast" (default is
"unicast"), depending on what you want to do (and on your "DstHost"
address) .
  *  "SourceHost" is the IP address (or DNS name) from which VLS will send
the stream .
  *  "SourcePort" is the UDP port from which the stream will be sent .
  *  "DestHost" is the IP address (or DNS name) to which the stream will be
sent .
  *  "DestPort" is the UDP port to which the stream will be sent (default is
"1234") .
  *  "TTL" is an option useful only if "Type" is "multicast" (default value
is "0"). You can use it to increase the TTL of your multicast packets if
they have to cross several routers .
  *  "Interface" is an option only supported under GNU/Linux, to force the
stream to be sent through a given network interface, "eth1" for instance"
(to use this option, you must have super-user permissions) .
Note "SrcHost" and "SrcPort" are optional (if you don't set them, VLS will
not 'bind' the socket) .
To configure a file channel, add a section in the following format :
BEGIN "FileChannelName"
FileName = "file"
Append = "append"
END
"FileChannelName" is the name of the file channel you want to configure.
"file" is the name of the file where the stream will be stored (default is
"fileout.ts"). "append" is either "yes" or "no", and indicates whether VLS
will append the stream at the end of the file, or rewrite it .
Example :
BEGIN "localhost" # The client is on the same host as the server
DstHost = "localhost"
DstPort = "1234"
END
BEGIN "client1" # unicast towards client1
DstHost = "192.168.1.2"
DstPort = "1234"
END
BEGIN "client2" # unicast towards client2 in IPv6
Domain = "inet6"
DstHost = "3ffe:ffff::2:12:42"
DstPort = "1234"
END
BEGIN "multicast1" # multicast streaming
Type = "multicast"
DstHost = "239.2.12.42"
DstPort = "1234"
TTL = "2"
END
BEGIN "multicast2" # multicast streaming in IPv6
Domain = "inet6"
Type = "multicast"
DstHost = "ff08::1"
DstPort = "1234"
TTL = "12"
END
BEGIN "localfile" # file output
FileName = "stream.ts"
Append = "no"
END
Caution If you use Windows, you should specify the "SrcHost" and "SrcPort"
fields. For example :
BEGIN "client1" # The client is on the same host as the server
SrcHost = "192.168.1.1" # IP of VLS
SrcPort = "1242" # Source port : the value is not important
DstHost = "192.168.1.2" # IP of the client
DstPort = "1234"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.10. Programs Configuration
As explained before, you must define the programs. Each one is a MPEG stream
(a file, for example). To do this, you must add an "Input" section in your
vls.cfg file. Each "Input" section must have the following syntax :
BEGIN "Input"
FilesPath = "path"
ProgramCount = "count"
END
"path" is the path where your MPEG files are located (by default it is the
current directory). "count" is the number of programs defined ("0" by
default) .
For each program you want to define, you must add a section with the
following format :
BEGIN "number"
Name = "name"
Type = "type"
FileName = "file"
Device = "device"
END
  *  "number" is the program number: the first program has number 1, the
second number 2, and so on .
  *  "name" is the program name, by which you will tell VLS to start this
program (see next chapter "Running VLS") .
  *  "type" can be "Mpeg1-PS", "Mpeg2-PS", "Mpeg2-TS", or "DVD". If your
stream is stored in a MPEG file (*.mpeg, *.mpg, *.vob, and so on...), it
is probably in Mpeg1-PS or Mpeg2-PS format .
  *  if "type" is set to "Mpeg1-PS", "Mpeg2-PS", or "Mpeg2-TS", VLS will
assume your stream is stored in the file "file", in the directory "path"
("path" being the variable defined in the "Input" section) .
  *  if "type" is "DVD", the variable "Device" will be used instead of
"FileName" (the variable "FilesPath" is not prepended to the device name
!). The variable "Device" is the device of your DVD drive ("/dev/hdc" or
"/dev/cdrom" for instance). You can also play a DVD copied on a hard
disk: then "device" is the directory where the .vob files are stored ("/
mnt/data/VIDEO_TS" for instance) .
Note VLS can stream MPEG files that meet two critera :
  * the file must be MPEG PS (Program Stream) or MPEG TS (Transport Stream),
that contain video and audio multiplexed. VLS cannot stream MPEG ES
(Elementary Stream), i.e. a file with only audio or video .
In order to know if an MPEG file is MPEG PS, MPEG TS or MPEG ES, read the
file with VLC and look at the messages (select in the menu View / Messages,
or use the command line vlc -vvv) .
  + If you see a line :
[00000107] main module debug: using demux module "ts_dvbpsi"
it means the file is MPEG TS .
  + If you see a line :
[00000109] main module debug: using demux module "ps"
it means the file is MPEG PS .
  + If you see a line :
[00000109] main module debug: using demux module "es"
it means the file is MPEG ES, VLS can't stream it. .
  * the sequence header of the video must repeat itself regularly, which is
often the case with MPEG-2, but very rare with MPEG-1. There is no easy way
to know if the sequence header is repeated regularly. Files with a .vob
extension are normally MPEG-2 files and files with .mpg or .mpeg extension
or usually MPEG-1 files .
You can download this streamable MPEG-2 PS file for your tests : [ftp://
ftp.videolan.org/pub/videolan/streams/presentation/presentation_short.vob]
presentation_short.vob .
Note In order to play DVDs, you need to compile VLS with DVD support, which
uses libdvdread and libdvdcss. You will need read and write access
rights to the DVD device .
Full example :
BEGIN "Input"
FilesPath = "/home/videolan/streams"
ProgramCount = "4"
END
BEGIN "1" # MPEG2 stream stored in /home/videolan/streams/Dolby.vob
Name = "dolby"
FileName = "Dolby.vob"
Type = "Mpeg2-PS"
END
BEGIN "2" # another file
Name = "canyon"
FileName = "Dolby_Canyon.vob"
Type = "Mpeg2-PS"
END
BEGIN "3" # DVD
Name = "dvd"
Device = "/dev/cdrom"
Type = "Dvd"
END
BEGIN "4" # DVD stored on a hard disk
Name = "matrix"
Device = "/mnt/data/matrix/VIDEO_TS"
Type = "Dvd"
END
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 5. Running VLS
5.1. Launching VLS
If you want to use the telnet interface, running VLS is very easy: just type
vls in a shell console, and that's all. Running vlsd will start VLS as a
daemon and will detach itself from the launching shell. Remember that VLS
will try to load its configuration file (vls.cfg) from the current directory,
and if there is no vls.cfg there, it will try to load it from SYSCONF_DIR/etc
/videolan (see section Configuration) .
Caution If your log file is vls.log as in the example, VLS will need write access in
the current directory, or you will see something like :
*** Exception *** in copy constructor (0xbffffc98, copy of 0x80e30a8)
Unable to open the log file "vls.log": Error: Could not open file 'vls.log':
Permission denied
Remember also that you must be root when using the "Interface" option in
vls.cfg .
If everything is right, you will see something like :
VideoLAN Server v 0.5.3 (Jun 6 2003) - (c)1999-2003 VideoLAN
2002-03-09 17:24:51 [INFO/Vls] Module "channel:file" registered
2002-03-09 17:24:51 [INFO/Vls] Module "channel:network" registered
2002-03-09 17:24:51 [INFO/Vls] Module "mpegreader:file" registered
2002-03-09 17:24:51 [INFO/Vls] Module "mpegconverter:ts2ts" registered
[...]
What you can see on the screen (stderr) is exactly what goes in the log file
vls.log .
When VLS has been successfully started, it doesn't take any command from its
standard input, so you can put it into background (you can use the screen
utility to do that) .
On the other hand, if you want to use the command line interface, please see
the [http://www.videolan.org/doc/] VideoLAN HOWTO .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2. Using the telnet interface
After VLS has been launched, it opens a telnet server (on the port 9999 by
default). You can connect to this server with the following command :
% telnet localhost 9999
You should see something like :
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to vls.
Escape character is '^]'.
Videolan Server Administration System
Login:
Then you must authenticate with a login/password pair defined in vls.cfg.
When you have been successfully authenticated, you should see a prompt like :
admin@vls>
>
Then you can type some commands, which are explained in the next paragraph.
To log out, type logout after the telnet prompt .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3. Interface commands
5.3.1. help
Usage: help [command] .
Called with no argument, "help" gives the list of all the commands
(available or not). Called with one argument it gives details about how to
use the specified command .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.2. browse
Usage: browse [input] .
Called without argument, "browse" gives all programs of inputs. Called with
one argument it only gives the programs of the specified input. Each program
is given with its status .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.3. start
Usage: start <program> <channel> <input> [--loop] [--rtp]
"start" launches the specified program of the specified input and broadcasts
it through the specified channel. The option "--loop" makes the program being
repeated indefinitely. The option "--rtp" makes the TS packet to be send
through the RTP protocol, as defined in RFC 1889 and RFC 2250 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.4. stop
Usage: stop <channel>
"stop" ends the broadcast of the specified channel .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.5. forward
Usage: forward <channel> <speed>
"forward" forwards the channel with the given speed. This does not work when
reading directly from a device such as an MPEG encoding card, a DVB card or
an acquisition card .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.6. rewind
Usage: rewind <channel> <speed>
"rewind" rewinds the channel with the given speed. This does not work when
reading directly from a device such as an MPEG encoding card, a DVB card or
an acquisition card .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.7. suspend
Usage: suspend <channel>
"suspend" suspends the streaming of the specified channel .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.8. resume
Usage: resume <channel>
"resume" resumes the streaming of the specified channel .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.9. logout
Usage: logout
"logout" closes the current administration session and the remote connection
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3.10. shutdown
Usage: shutdown
"shutdown" stops all the programs and shutdowns VLS .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple
Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy
and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it
is not allowed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.1. PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure
everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this
License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by
others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide,
royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the
conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or
work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You
accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way
requiring permission under copyright law.
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be
a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters,
or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
regarding them.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit
the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as
Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document
does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5
words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with
generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint
programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a
variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an
otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has
been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is
not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any
substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
"Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or
PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats
include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can
be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which
the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors
for output purposes only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title
either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that
translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section
name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
"Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when
you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ"
according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are
considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards
disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.3. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed
covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license
notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that
carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the
front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also
clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front
cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally
prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the
title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as
verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
computer-network location from which the general network-using public has
access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the
latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent
copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through
your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.5. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release
you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to
it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher
of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no
section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title,
year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
location for a work that was published at least four years before the
Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance
and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications
given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
considered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve
all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from
the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's
users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included
an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate
which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket
the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if
the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed
covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.9. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in
the Document, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided that you also include the
original English version of this License and the original versions of those
notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation
and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the
original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
will typically require changing the actual title.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.10. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section
entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.