Merge pull request #64 from jasonleschnik/master

Fixed up repeated words and Typos
pull/67/head
Martin A. Brown 6 years ago committed by GitHub
commit d8e3f44db9
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@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
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and therefore generates MULTIPLE HTML FILES as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
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@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates a SINGLE HTML FILE as output. -->
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should not be changed. -->
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@ -854,7 +854,7 @@ mt -f /dev/nqft0 rewind
</verb></tscreen>
would result in a backup of all files under <it>/bin</it> and <it>/etc</it>. When
the first <it/tar/ finishes, the kernel driver will take care of writing
a file mark to the tape at the the current tape position, and when the
a file mark to the tape at the current tape position, and when the
second <it/tar/ process has finished, another file mark is written to the
tape cartridge at that position.
@ -1416,7 +1416,7 @@ with the single line
<tscreen><verb>
unsubscribe linux-tape MY@EMAIL.ADDRESS
</verb></tscreen>
where <tt/MY@EMAIL.ADDRESS/ has to be replaced by the the email
where <tt/MY@EMAIL.ADDRESS/ has to be replaced by the email
address that you used when subscribing to the list. Note that you must
have received an email with instructions how to unsubscribe from the
mailing list at the time you subscribed to it.

@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ satisfy this requirement, the LVM plug-in will not allow the object to be added
<sect2><title>Removing objects from LVM containers</title>
<para>You can remove a consumed object from its container as long as no regions
are mapped to that object. The LVM plug-in does not allow objects that are in use to
be removed their their container. If an object must be removed, you can delete or
be removed from their container. If an object must be removed, you can delete or
shrink regions, or move extents, in order to free the object from use.</para>
<para>No options are available for removing objects from LVM containers.</para>

@ -1710,7 +1710,7 @@ sectors to the end of the segment, moving the end of the data segment
up into the freespace that immediately follows the data segment. However,
what if there is no freespace following the data segment? A segment or
segments could
be be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
expanded. For example:
</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul type="disc"><li><p>The segment following the segment to be expanded can be moved
elsewhere on the disk, thus freeing up space after the segment that
@ -2082,7 +2082,7 @@ must be large enough to hold five physical extents. If an object is not large e
satisfy this requirement, the LVM plug-in will not allow the object to be added to the container.
</p></div><div class="sect2"><div class="titlepage"><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id2887424"></a>C.2.3. Removing objects from LVM containers</h3></div></div><p>You can remove a consumed object from its container as long as no regions
are mapped to that object. The LVM plug-in does not allow objects that are in use to
be removed their their container. If an object must be removed, you can delete or
be removed from their container. If an object must be removed, you can delete or
shrink regions, or move extents, in order to free the object from use.</p><p>No options are available for removing objects from LVM containers.</p></div><div class="sect2"><div class="titlepage"><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id2888540"></a>C.2.4. Deleting LVM containers</h3></div></div><p>You can delete a container as long as the container does not have any produced
regions. The LVM plug-in does not allow containers to be deleted if they have any
regions. No options are available for deleting LVM containers.</p></div></div><div class="sect1"><div class="titlepage"><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id2888557"></a>C.3. Region operations</h2></div></div><div class="sect2"><div class="titlepage"><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id2888563"></a>C.3.1. Creating LVM regions</h3></div></div><p>You create LVM regions from the freespace in LVM containers. If there is at least

@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
<para>In order for user-space programs to access EVMS
volumes, device files are created in the <filename>/dev/evms
</filename> directory for each volume that is exported by EVMS. Device files are created every time
the Engine is opened and saves changes, so you can always see the the current state of the volume configuration
the Engine is opened and saves changes, so you can always see the current state of the volume configuration
in the <filename>/dev/evms</filename> directory.</para>
<para>A variety of namespaces exist within the <filename>/dev/evms</filename> directory. Each plug-in defines

@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ sectors to the end of the segment, moving the end of the data segment
up into the freespace that immediately follows the data segment. However,
what if there is no freespace following the data segment? A segment or
segments could
be be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
expanded. For example:
</para>
<itemizedlist>

@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ sectors to the end of the segment, moving the end of the data segment
up into the freespace that immediately follows the data segment. However,
what if there is no freespace following the data segment? A segment or
segments could
be be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
be moved around to put freespace after the segment that is to be
expanded. For example:
</para>
<itemizedlist>

@ -258,7 +258,7 @@ If you wish to make contributions it is recommended (if possible) to read the Ly
<chapter id="Legal"><title>Legal</title><para>The legal <indexterm><primary>legal</primary></indexterm>chapter provides information <indexterm><primary>information</primary></indexterm>about the disclaimer <indexterm><primary>disclaimer</primary></indexterm>that applies to the entire document and the licensing <indexterm><primary>licensing</primary></indexterm>information.</para><sect1 id="disclaimer"><title>Disclaimer</title><para>No liability <indexterm><primary>liability</primary></indexterm>for the contents <indexterm><primary>contents</primary></indexterm>of this document <indexterm><primary>documents</primary></indexterm>can be accepted. Use the concepts,<indexterm><primary>concepts</primary></indexterm> examples <indexterm><primary>examples</primary></indexterm>and other content <indexterm><primary>content</primary></indexterm>at your own risk.<indexterm><primary>risk</primary></indexterm> There may be errors <indexterm><primary>errors</primary></indexterm>and inaccuracies,<indexterm><primary>inaccuracies</primary></indexterm> that may of course be damaging to your system. Although this is highly <indexterm><primary>highly</primary></indexterm>unlikely, you should proceed <indexterm><primary>proceed</primary></indexterm>with caution.<indexterm><primary>caution</primary></indexterm> The author <indexterm><primary>author</primary></indexterm>does not accept any responsibility <indexterm><primary>responsibility</primary></indexterm>for any damage <indexterm><primary>damage</primary></indexterm>incurred.</para><para>All copyrights <indexterm><primary>copyrights</primary></indexterm>are held by their respective owners<indexterm><primary>respective owners</primary></indexterm>, unless specifically<indexterm><primary>specifically</primary></indexterm> noted otherwise. Use of a term <indexterm><primary>term</primary></indexterm>in this document should not be regarded <indexterm><primary>regarded</primary></indexterm>as affecting the validity <indexterm><primary>validity</primary></indexterm>of any trademark <indexterm><primary>trademark</primary></indexterm>or service mark<indexterm><primary>service mark</primary></indexterm>.</para><para>Naming <indexterm><primary>Naming</primary></indexterm>of particular products <indexterm><primary>products</primary></indexterm>or brands <indexterm><primary>brands</primary></indexterm>should not be seen as endorsements.<indexterm><primary>endorsements</primary></indexterm></para><para>UNIX <indexterm><primary>UNIX</primary></indexterm>is a registered trademark <indexterm><primary>trademark</primary></indexterm>of The Open Group<indexterm><primary>The Open Group</primary></indexterm>.</para></sect1>
<sect1 id="license"><title>License</title><para>Copyright <indexterm><primary>Copyright</primary></indexterm>&copy; 2003 - 2006 Gareth Anderson.<indexterm><primary>Gareth Anderson</primary></indexterm> Permission <indexterm><primary>Permission</primary></indexterm>is granted <indexterm><primary>granted</primary></indexterm>to copy,<indexterm><primary>copy</primary></indexterm> distribute <indexterm><primary>distribute</primary></indexterm>and/or modify <indexterm><primary>modify</primary></indexterm>this document under the terms <indexterm><primary>terms</primary></indexterm>of the <acronym>GNU</acronym> <indexterm><primary>GNU</primary></indexterm>Free Documentation License,<indexterm><primary>GNU Free Documentation License</primary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>GFDL</primary></indexterm> Version <indexterm><primary>Version</primary></indexterm>1.1 or any later version <indexterm><primary>version</primary></indexterm>published by the Free Software Foundation;<indexterm><primary>FSF</primary></indexterm><indexterm><primary>Free Software Foundation</primary></indexterm> with no Invariant <indexterm><primary>Invariant</primary></indexterm>Sections,<indexterm><primary>Sections</primary></indexterm> with no Front-Cover <indexterm><primary>Front-Cover</primary></indexterm>Texts, and with no Back-Cover <indexterm><primary>Back-Cover</primary></indexterm>Texts.<indexterm><primary>Texts</primary></indexterm> A copy of the license <indexterm><primary>license</primary></indexterm>can be found in the section called the <acronym>GNU</acronym> Free Documentation License or at the <ulink url="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/licenses.html">GNU Documentation License Site</ulink>.<indexterm><primary>GNU Documentation License Site</primary></indexterm></para></sect1>
</chapter>
<chapter id="The-UNIX-Tools-Philosophy"><title>The Unix Tools Philosophy</title><para>A tool is a simple program,<indexterm><primary>program</primary></indexterm> usually designed for a specific purpose, it is sometimes referred <indexterm><primary>referred</primary></indexterm>to (at least throughout this document) as a command.</para><para>The &ldquo; Unix tools philosophy&rdquo;<indexterm><primary>Unix Tools Philosophy</primary></indexterm> emerged <indexterm><primary>emerged</primary></indexterm>during the creation of the <productname>UNIX</productname> <indexterm><primary>UNIX</primary></indexterm>operating system, after the breakthrough invention <indexterm><primary>invention</primary></indexterm>of the pipe <indexterm><primary>pipe</primary></indexterm>'|' (refer to <xref linkend="Directing-input-ouput"> for information on using the pipe).</para><para>The pipe <indexterm><primary>pipe</primary></indexterm>allowed the output <indexterm><primary>output</primary></indexterm>of one program to be sent to the input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>of another. The tools philosophy was to have small programs to accomplish a particular task instead of trying to develop large monolithic programs to do a large number of tasks. To accomplish more complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>tasks,<indexterm><primary>tasks</primary></indexterm> tools would simply be connected <indexterm><primary>connected</primary></indexterm>together, using pipes.<indexterm><primary>pipes</primary></indexterm></para><para>All the core <indexterm><primary>core</primary></indexterm>UNIX system <indexterm><primary>UNIX system</primary></indexterm>tools were designed <indexterm><primary>designed</primary></indexterm>so that they could operate<indexterm><primary>operate</primary></indexterm> together. The original text-based <indexterm><primary>text-based</primary></indexterm>editors (and even <application>TeX</application> <indexterm><primary>TeX</primary></indexterm>and LaTeX<indexterm><primary>LaTeX</primary></indexterm>) use <acronym>ASCII</acronym> <indexterm><primary>ASCII</primary></indexterm>(the American text encoding standard;<indexterm><primary>American text encoding standard</primary></indexterm> an open standard) and you can use tools such as; <emphasis>sed</emphasis>, <emphasis>awk</emphasis>, <emphasis>vi</emphasis>, <emphasis>grep</emphasis>, <emphasis>cat</emphasis>, <emphasis>more</emphasis>, <emphasis>tr</emphasis> and various other text-based <indexterm><primary>text-based</primary></indexterm>tools in conjunction <indexterm><primary>conjunction</primary></indexterm>with these editors.<indexterm><primary>editors</primary></indexterm> </para><para>Using this philosophy <indexterm><primary>philosophy</primary></indexterm>programmers <indexterm><primary>programmers</primary></indexterm>avoided writing <indexterm><primary>writing</primary></indexterm>a program (within their larger program) that had already been written by someone else (this could be considered a form of code <indexterm><primary>code</primary></indexterm>recycling). For example, command-line<indexterm><primary>command-line</primary></indexterm> spell <indexterm><primary>spell</primary></indexterm>checkers are used by a number of different applications instead of having each application <indexterm><primary>application</primary></indexterm>create its own own spell checker.<indexterm><primary>checker</primary></indexterm></para><para>This philosophy <indexterm><primary>philosophy</primary></indexterm>lives on today <indexterm><primary>today</primary></indexterm>in GNU/Linux and various other <productname>UNIX</productname> system-based operating systems (FreeBSD,<indexterm><primary>FreeBSD</primary></indexterm> NetBSD,<indexterm><primary>NetBSD</primary></indexterm> OpenBSD,<indexterm><primary>OpenBSD</primary></indexterm> etc.).</para><para>For further information (articles) on the <productname>UNIX</productname> tools philosophy <indexterm><primary>UNIX tools philosophy</primary></indexterm>please see the further reading <indexterm><primary>further reading</primary></indexterm>section, here: <xref linkend="unix-tools-further-reading"></para><para></para></chapter>
<chapter id="The-UNIX-Tools-Philosophy"><title>The Unix Tools Philosophy</title><para>A tool is a simple program,<indexterm><primary>program</primary></indexterm> usually designed for a specific purpose, it is sometimes referred <indexterm><primary>referred</primary></indexterm>to (at least throughout this document) as a command.</para><para>The &ldquo; Unix tools philosophy&rdquo;<indexterm><primary>Unix Tools Philosophy</primary></indexterm> emerged <indexterm><primary>emerged</primary></indexterm>during the creation of the <productname>UNIX</productname> <indexterm><primary>UNIX</primary></indexterm>operating system, after the breakthrough invention <indexterm><primary>invention</primary></indexterm>of the pipe <indexterm><primary>pipe</primary></indexterm>'|' (refer to <xref linkend="Directing-input-ouput"> for information on using the pipe).</para><para>The pipe <indexterm><primary>pipe</primary></indexterm>allowed the output <indexterm><primary>output</primary></indexterm>of one program to be sent to the input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>of another. The tools philosophy was to have small programs to accomplish a particular task instead of trying to develop large monolithic programs to do a large number of tasks. To accomplish more complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>tasks,<indexterm><primary>tasks</primary></indexterm> tools would simply be connected <indexterm><primary>connected</primary></indexterm>together, using pipes.<indexterm><primary>pipes</primary></indexterm></para><para>All the core <indexterm><primary>core</primary></indexterm>UNIX system <indexterm><primary>UNIX system</primary></indexterm>tools were designed <indexterm><primary>designed</primary></indexterm>so that they could operate<indexterm><primary>operate</primary></indexterm> together. The original text-based <indexterm><primary>text-based</primary></indexterm>editors (and even <application>TeX</application> <indexterm><primary>TeX</primary></indexterm>and LaTeX<indexterm><primary>LaTeX</primary></indexterm>) use <acronym>ASCII</acronym> <indexterm><primary>ASCII</primary></indexterm>(the American text encoding standard;<indexterm><primary>American text encoding standard</primary></indexterm> an open standard) and you can use tools such as; <emphasis>sed</emphasis>, <emphasis>awk</emphasis>, <emphasis>vi</emphasis>, <emphasis>grep</emphasis>, <emphasis>cat</emphasis>, <emphasis>more</emphasis>, <emphasis>tr</emphasis> and various other text-based <indexterm><primary>text-based</primary></indexterm>tools in conjunction <indexterm><primary>conjunction</primary></indexterm>with these editors.<indexterm><primary>editors</primary></indexterm> </para><para>Using this philosophy <indexterm><primary>philosophy</primary></indexterm>programmers <indexterm><primary>programmers</primary></indexterm>avoided writing <indexterm><primary>writing</primary></indexterm>a program (within their larger program) that had already been written by someone else (this could be considered a form of code <indexterm><primary>code</primary></indexterm>recycling). For example, command-line<indexterm><primary>command-line</primary></indexterm> spell <indexterm><primary>spell</primary></indexterm>checkers are used by a number of different applications instead of having each application <indexterm><primary>application</primary></indexterm>create its own spell checker.<indexterm><primary>checker</primary></indexterm></para><para>This philosophy <indexterm><primary>philosophy</primary></indexterm>lives on today <indexterm><primary>today</primary></indexterm>in GNU/Linux and various other <productname>UNIX</productname> system-based operating systems (FreeBSD,<indexterm><primary>FreeBSD</primary></indexterm> NetBSD,<indexterm><primary>NetBSD</primary></indexterm> OpenBSD,<indexterm><primary>OpenBSD</primary></indexterm> etc.).</para><para>For further information (articles) on the <productname>UNIX</productname> tools philosophy <indexterm><primary>UNIX tools philosophy</primary></indexterm>please see the further reading <indexterm><primary>further reading</primary></indexterm>section, here: <xref linkend="unix-tools-further-reading"></para><para></para></chapter>
<chapter id="Shell-Tips"><title>Shell Tips</title><para>The shell <indexterm><primary>shell</primary></indexterm>tips chapter provides handy tricks that you may wish to use when you are using a GNU/Linux shell (the command-line<indexterm><primary>command-line</primary></indexterm> interface). This information includes handy <indexterm><primary>handy</primary></indexterm>shortcut <indexterm><primary>shortcut</primary></indexterm>key combinations,<indexterm><primary>key combinations</primary></indexterm> the shell's command history<indexterm><primary>command history</primary></indexterm> and information on virtual terminals.<indexterm><primary>virtual terminals</primary></indexterm></para><tip>
<title>If you can't boot into your system</title>
<para>If your having problems booting into your system you may like to use a shell so you can boot into your system and attempt to fix things up again.</para>
@ -380,7 +380,7 @@ Using <emphasis>echo</emphasis> allows you to expand the wildcards to understand
<sect1 id="the-command-line-history"><title>The command-line history</title><variablelist><varlistentry><term>Using&nbsp;the&nbsp;command&nbsp;history
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>command history</primary></indexterm>Use the up and down key's to scroll <indexterm><primary>scroll</primary></indexterm>through previously typed commands. Press [Enter] to execute <indexterm><primary>execute</primary></indexterm>them or use the left and right arrow <indexterm><primary>arrow</primary></indexterm>keys to edit<indexterm><primary>edit</primary></indexterm> the command first. Also see <emphasis>history</emphasis> (below).</para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>The&nbsp;history&nbsp;command
</term><listitem><para>The<emphasis> history <indexterm><primary>history</primary></indexterm></emphasis> command can be used to list Bash's log <indexterm><primary>log</primary></indexterm>of the commands you have typed:</para><para>This log <indexterm><primary>log</primary></indexterm>is called the &ldquo;history&rdquo;. To access <indexterm><primary>access</primary></indexterm>it type:</para><screen><![CDATA[history n
]]></screen><para>This will only list the last <indexterm><primary>last</primary></indexterm><emphasis>n</emphasis> commands. Type &ldquo;history&rdquo; (without options) to see the the entire history <indexterm><primary>history</primary></indexterm>list.<indexterm><primary>list</primary></indexterm></para><para>You can also type <emphasis>!n</emphasis><indexterm><primary>!n</primary></indexterm> to execute command number<indexterm><primary>command number</primary></indexterm> n. Use <emphasis>!!<indexterm><primary>!!</primary></indexterm></emphasis> to execute the last command you typed.</para><para><emphasis>!-n<indexterm><primary>!-n</primary></indexterm> </emphasis>will execute the command n times <indexterm><primary>times</primary></indexterm>before (in other words <emphasis>!-1</emphasis> is equivalent <indexterm><primary>equivalent</primary></indexterm>to <emphasis>!!</emphasis>). </para><para><emphasis>!string<indexterm><primary>!string</primary></indexterm> </emphasis>will execute the last command starting <indexterm><primary>starting</primary></indexterm>with that &ldquo;string&rdquo; and <emphasis>!?string?</emphasis> will execute the last command containing the word &ldquo;string&rdquo;. For example:</para><screen><![CDATA[!cd
]]></screen><para>This will only list the last <indexterm><primary>last</primary></indexterm><emphasis>n</emphasis> commands. Type &ldquo;history&rdquo; (without options) to see the entire history <indexterm><primary>history</primary></indexterm>list.<indexterm><primary>list</primary></indexterm></para><para>You can also type <emphasis>!n</emphasis><indexterm><primary>!n</primary></indexterm> to execute command number<indexterm><primary>command number</primary></indexterm> n. Use <emphasis>!!<indexterm><primary>!!</primary></indexterm></emphasis> to execute the last command you typed.</para><para><emphasis>!-n<indexterm><primary>!-n</primary></indexterm> </emphasis>will execute the command n times <indexterm><primary>times</primary></indexterm>before (in other words <emphasis>!-1</emphasis> is equivalent <indexterm><primary>equivalent</primary></indexterm>to <emphasis>!!</emphasis>). </para><para><emphasis>!string<indexterm><primary>!string</primary></indexterm> </emphasis>will execute the last command starting <indexterm><primary>starting</primary></indexterm>with that &ldquo;string&rdquo; and <emphasis>!?string?</emphasis> will execute the last command containing the word &ldquo;string&rdquo;. For example:</para><screen><![CDATA[!cd
]]></screen><para>Will re-run the command that you last typed starting with &ldquo;cd&rdquo;.</para><para></para><para><emphasis>&ldquo; commandName <indexterm><primary>commandName</primary></indexterm>!*&rdquo;</emphasis> will execute the &ldquo;commandName&rdquo; with any arguments <indexterm><primary>arguments</primary></indexterm>you used on your last command. This maybe useful if you make a spelling <indexterm><primary>spelling</primary></indexterm>mistake, for example. If you typed:</para><screen><![CDATA[emasc /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java
]]></screen><para>In an attempt <indexterm><primary>attempt</primary></indexterm>to execute emacs <indexterm><primary>emacs</primary></indexterm>on the above two files this will obviously fail.<indexterm><primary>fail</primary></indexterm> So what you can do is type:</para><screen><![CDATA[emacs !*
]]></screen><para>This will execute emacs <indexterm><primary>emacs</primary></indexterm>with the arguments <indexterm><primary>arguments</primary></indexterm>that you last typed on the command-line.<indexterm><primary>command-line</primary></indexterm> In other words this is equivalent <indexterm><primary>equivalent</primary></indexterm>to typing:</para><screen><![CDATA[emacs /home/fred/mywork.java /tmp/testme.java
@ -1237,7 +1237,7 @@ You could also change the command it runs for example if you changed the <emphas
</term><listitem><para>Displays text, one page full at a time,<indexterm><primary>time</primary></indexterm> more limited than <emphasis>less</emphasis>. In this case <emphasis>less</emphasis> is better than <emphasis>more</emphasis>.</para><screen><![CDATA[more filename.txt
]]></screen><para>Or using a tool (is this example cat):</para><screen><![CDATA[cat file.txt | more
]]></screen></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>cat<anchor id="cat">
</term><listitem><para>Combines <indexterm><primary>Combines</primary></indexterm>(concatenates) multiple <indexterm><primary>multiple</primary></indexterm>documents <indexterm><primary>documents</primary></indexterm>into one document.<indexterm><primary>document</primary></indexterm> Can be used on individual <indexterm><primary>individual</primary></indexterm>files as well.</para><para>Some useful options:<indexterm><primary>options</primary></indexterm></para><itemizedlist><listitem><para><emphasis>-b</emphasis><indexterm><primary>-b</primary></indexterm> --- number <indexterm><primary>number</primary></indexterm>all non-blank <indexterm><primary>non-blank</primary></indexterm>lines</para></listitem><listitem><para><emphasis>-n<indexterm><primary>-n</primary></indexterm></emphasis> --- number all lines. </para></listitem></itemizedlist><para>Also try using <emphasis>nl</emphasis> to number lines (it can do more complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>numbering), you will find it under under this section,<indexterm><primary>section</primary></indexterm> <xref linkend="text-manipulation-tools"></para><para>Example:</para><screen><![CDATA[cat filepart1 filepart2 filepart3 > wholefile.txt
</term><listitem><para>Combines <indexterm><primary>Combines</primary></indexterm>(concatenates) multiple <indexterm><primary>multiple</primary></indexterm>documents <indexterm><primary>documents</primary></indexterm>into one document.<indexterm><primary>document</primary></indexterm> Can be used on individual <indexterm><primary>individual</primary></indexterm>files as well.</para><para>Some useful options:<indexterm><primary>options</primary></indexterm></para><itemizedlist><listitem><para><emphasis>-b</emphasis><indexterm><primary>-b</primary></indexterm> --- number <indexterm><primary>number</primary></indexterm>all non-blank <indexterm><primary>non-blank</primary></indexterm>lines</para></listitem><listitem><para><emphasis>-n<indexterm><primary>-n</primary></indexterm></emphasis> --- number all lines. </para></listitem></itemizedlist><para>Also try using <emphasis>nl</emphasis> to number lines (it can do more complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>numbering), you will find it under this section,<indexterm><primary>section</primary></indexterm> <xref linkend="text-manipulation-tools"></para><para>Example:</para><screen><![CDATA[cat filepart1 filepart2 filepart3 > wholefile.txt
]]></screen><para>This will combine <indexterm><primary>combine</primary></indexterm>(concatenate) filepart1,<indexterm><primary>filepart1</primary></indexterm> filepart2 <indexterm><primary>filepart2</primary></indexterm>and filepart3 <indexterm><primary>filepart3</primary></indexterm>into the single file &ldquo;wholefile.txt&rdquo;.</para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>tac
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>tac</primary></indexterm>Combines (concatenates) multiple <indexterm><primary>multiple</primary></indexterm>documents <indexterm><primary>documents</primary></indexterm>into one document <indexterm><primary>document</primary></indexterm>and outputs<indexterm><primary>outputs</primary></indexterm> them in reverse order.<indexterm><primary>reverse</primary></indexterm> Can also be used on individual <indexterm><primary>individual</primary></indexterm>files. Notice that <emphasis>tac</emphasis> is <emphasis>cat</emphasis> written backwards. </para><para>Example:</para><screen><![CDATA[tac filepart1 filepart2 filepart3 > wholefile.txt
]]></screen><para>This will combine <indexterm><primary>combine</primary></indexterm>(concatenate) filepart1,<indexterm><primary>filepart1</primary></indexterm> filepart2 <indexterm><primary>filepart2</primary></indexterm>and filepart3 <indexterm><primary>filepart3</primary></indexterm>into the single file but have each of the files written in reverse.<indexterm><primary>reverse</primary></indexterm></para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>z*&nbsp;commands
@ -1283,8 +1283,8 @@ You could also change the command it runs for example if you changed the <emphas
]]></screen><para>This will run <emphasis>aspell</emphasis> on a particular file called &ldquo;FILE.txt&rdquo;, <emphasis>aspell</emphasis> will run interactively and prompt <indexterm><primary>prompt</primary></indexterm>for user input.</para><para><emphasis>ispell</emphasis> example:</para><screen><![CDATA[ispell FILE.txt
]]></screen><para>This will run <emphasis>ispell</emphasis> on a particular file called &ldquo;FILE.txt&rdquo; <emphasis>ispell</emphasis> will run interactively and prompt <indexterm><primary>prompt</primary></indexterm>for user input.</para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>chcase
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>chcase</primary></indexterm>Is used to change the uppercase <indexterm><primary>uppercase</primary></indexterm>letters in a file name to lowercase<indexterm><primary>lowercase</primary></indexterm> (or vice versa).</para><para>You could also use <emphasis>tr<indexterm><primary>tr</primary></indexterm></emphasis> to do the same thing... </para><screen><![CDATA[cat fileName.txt | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]' > newFileName.txt
]]></screen><para>The above would convert <indexterm><primary>convert</primary></indexterm>uppercase to lowercase using the the file &ldquo;fileName.txt&rdquo; as input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>and outputting the results <indexterm><primary>results</primary></indexterm>to &ldquo;newFileName.txt&rdquo;.</para><screen><![CDATA[cat fileName.txt | tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]' > newFileName.txt
]]></screen><para>The above would convert lowercase to uppercase using the the file &ldquo;fileName.txt&rdquo; as input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>and outputting the results <indexterm><primary>results</primary></indexterm>to &ldquo;newFileName.txt&rdquo;.</para><para><emphasis>chcase</emphasis> (a perl <indexterm><primary>perl</primary></indexterm>script) can be found <indexterm><primary>found</primary></indexterm>at the <ulink url="http://www.blemished.net/chcase.html">chcase homepage.</ulink><indexterm><primary>chcase homepage</primary></indexterm></para><para></para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>fmt
]]></screen><para>The above would convert <indexterm><primary>convert</primary></indexterm>uppercase to lowercase using the file &ldquo;fileName.txt&rdquo; as input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>and outputting the results <indexterm><primary>results</primary></indexterm>to &ldquo;newFileName.txt&rdquo;.</para><screen><![CDATA[cat fileName.txt | tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]' > newFileName.txt
]]></screen><para>The above would convert lowercase to uppercase using the file &ldquo;fileName.txt&rdquo; as input <indexterm><primary>input</primary></indexterm>and outputting the results <indexterm><primary>results</primary></indexterm>to &ldquo;newFileName.txt&rdquo;.</para><para><emphasis>chcase</emphasis> (a perl <indexterm><primary>perl</primary></indexterm>script) can be found <indexterm><primary>found</primary></indexterm>at the <ulink url="http://www.blemished.net/chcase.html">chcase homepage.</ulink><indexterm><primary>chcase homepage</primary></indexterm></para><para></para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>fmt
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>fmt</primary></indexterm>(format) a simple text formatter. Use<emphasis> fmt <indexterm><primary>fmt</primary></indexterm></emphasis>with the <emphasis>-u<indexterm><primary>-u</primary></indexterm></emphasis> option to output text with &quot;uniform spacing&quot;, where the space <indexterm><primary>space</primary></indexterm>between words is reduced to one space character <indexterm><primary>character</primary></indexterm>and the space between sentences <indexterm><primary>sentences</primary></indexterm>is reduced to two space characters. </para><para>Example:</para><screen><![CDATA[fmt -u myessay.txt
]]></screen><para>Will make sure the amount <indexterm><primary>amount</primary></indexterm>of space between sentences <indexterm><primary>sentences</primary></indexterm>is two spaces and the amount <indexterm><primary>amount</primary></indexterm>of space between words is one space.</para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>paste
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>paste</primary></indexterm>Puts lines from two files together, either lines of each file side by side (normally separated <indexterm><primary>separated</primary></indexterm>by a tab-stop <indexterm><primary>tab-stop</primary></indexterm>but you can have any symbols(s) you like...) or it can have words from each file (the first file then the second file) side by side.</para><para>To obtain a list <indexterm><primary>list</primary></indexterm>of lines side by side, the first lines from the first file on the left side separated <indexterm><primary>separated</primary></indexterm>by a tab-stop <indexterm><primary>tab-stop</primary></indexterm>then the first lines from the second file. You would type:</para><screen><![CDATA[paste file1.txt file2.txt
@ -1721,7 +1721,7 @@ Note that with mtools commands you can use the slashes on the a: part either way
]]></screen><para>This would run the echo <indexterm><primary>echo</primary></indexterm>command with the string <indexterm><primary>string</primary></indexterm>shown at 4:05 every Sunday.</para></listitem></varlistentry></variablelist><para></para></chapter>
<chapter id="Miscellaneous"><title>Miscellaneous</title><para>The miscellaneous <indexterm><primary>miscellaneous</primary></indexterm>chapter contains commands that don't really fit into the other sections <indexterm><primary>sections</primary></indexterm>of this guide.</para><variablelist><varlistentry><term>renaming&nbsp;extensions
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>renaming extensions</primary></indexterm>To rename <indexterm><primary>rename</primary></indexterm>all of the files in the current <indexterm><primary>current</primary></indexterm>directory<indexterm><primary>directory</primary></indexterm> with a '.htm' extension <indexterm><primary>extension</primary></indexterm>to '.html', type:</para><screen><![CDATA[$ chcase -x 's/htm/html/' '*.htm']]><indexterm><primary>-x</primary></indexterm><![CDATA[
]]></screen><para>You can get a copy <indexterm><primary>copy</primary></indexterm>of <emphasis>the chcase <indexterm><primary>chcase</primary></indexterm></emphasis> perl <indexterm><primary>perl</primary></indexterm>script<emphasis> <ulink url="http://www.blemished.net/chcase.html">here.</ulink></emphasis></para><para>For more <indexterm><primary>more</primary></indexterm>complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>renaming <indexterm><primary>renaming</primary></indexterm>you should read <xref linkend="mass-rename"></para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>rel<footnote><para>This information information comes from the <productname>Linux</productname> Cookbook (without editing). See [3] in the <xref linkend="references"> for further information.</para></footnote>
]]></screen><para>You can get a copy <indexterm><primary>copy</primary></indexterm>of <emphasis>the chcase <indexterm><primary>chcase</primary></indexterm></emphasis> perl <indexterm><primary>perl</primary></indexterm>script<emphasis> <ulink url="http://www.blemished.net/chcase.html">here.</ulink></emphasis></para><para>For more <indexterm><primary>more</primary></indexterm>complex <indexterm><primary>complex</primary></indexterm>renaming <indexterm><primary>renaming</primary></indexterm>you should read <xref linkend="mass-rename"></para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>rel<footnote><para>This information comes from the <productname>Linux</productname> Cookbook (without editing). See [3] in the <xref linkend="references"> for further information.</para></footnote>
</term><listitem><para>Use rel <indexterm><primary>rel</primary></indexterm>to analyze <indexterm><primary>analyze</primary></indexterm>text files for relevance <indexterm><primary>relevance</primary></indexterm>to a given set of keywords.<indexterm><primary>keywords</primary></indexterm> It outputs <indexterm><primary>outputs</primary></indexterm>the names of those files that are relevant <indexterm><primary>relevant</primary></indexterm>to the given keywords, ranked <indexterm><primary>ranked</primary></indexterm>in order <indexterm><primary>order</primary></indexterm>of relevance;<indexterm><primary>relevance</primary></indexterm> if a file does not meet the criteria,<indexterm><primary>criteria</primary></indexterm> it is not outputted in the relevance <indexterm><primary>relevance</primary></indexterm>listing.</para></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>units&nbsp;man&nbsp;page
</term><listitem><para><indexterm><primary>units man page</primary></indexterm>There is a man page, part of the <productname>Linux</productname> Programmers <indexterm><primary>Programmers</primary></indexterm>Manual called &ldquo;units&rdquo;. It displays various information <indexterm><primary>information</primary></indexterm>on the various scientific <indexterm><primary>scientific</primary></indexterm>measurements<indexterm><primary>measurements</primary></indexterm> (such as mega,<indexterm><primary>mega</primary></indexterm> giga <indexterm><primary>giga</primary></indexterm>et cetera). This manual <indexterm><primary>manual</primary></indexterm>page <indexterm><primary>page</primary></indexterm>also has a short discussion about the argument <indexterm><primary>argument</primary></indexterm>over which<indexterm><primary>which</primary></indexterm> standard <indexterm><primary>standard</primary></indexterm>should be used to measure <indexterm><primary>measure</primary></indexterm>data (ie. the kibibyte <indexterm><primary>kibibyte</primary></indexterm>vs kilobyte). </para><para>To access <indexterm><primary>access</primary></indexterm>this man page type:</para><screen><![CDATA[man 7 units
]]></screen></listitem></varlistentry><varlistentry><term>fortune

@ -848,7 +848,7 @@ access control (access)
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Access control refers to controlling access by a user to a computer system, or data on that system. In formal terms, a &quot;subject&quot; (e.g. a user) attempts to access the &quot;object&quot; (e.g. system or data). An access control system will evaluate the security levels of the subject and object in order to see if access is permitted. Example: A simple example is the case where you enter a username and password in order to log onto the computer. Contrast: mandatory access control The system gives users &quot;clearance levels&quot;, and assigns sensitivity levels to information. Therefore, if you only have &quot;secret&quot; clearance level, you cannot access &quot;top-secret&quot; information, but you can access &quot;secret&quot; or &quot;confidential&quot; information. See: Bell-LaPadula Model for more information. discretionary access control This system assigns subjects (users) to one or more groups. An object (system or file) contains a DACL (discretionary access control list) enumeration which users and groups may access the object. See: Access Control List for more information. Key point: There are different kinds of access. Read access means that somebody can read information, whereas write access implies that that somebody can change the data. For example, you can get a copy of your credit report and read it, but you can&apos;t necessarily change the data. From Hacking-Lexicon
Access control refers to controlling access by a user to a computer system, or data on that system. In formal terms, a &quot;subject&quot; (e.g. a user) attempts to access the &quot;object&quot; (e.g. system or data). An access control system will evaluate the security levels of the subject and object in order to see if access is permitted. Example: A simple example is the case where you enter a username and password in order to log onto the computer. Contrast: mandatory access control The system gives users &quot;clearance levels&quot;, and assigns sensitivity levels to information. Therefore, if you only have &quot;secret&quot; clearance level, you cannot access &quot;top-secret&quot; information, but you can access &quot;secret&quot; or &quot;confidential&quot; information. See: Bell-LaPadula Model for more information. discretionary access control This system assigns subjects (users) to one or more groups. An object (system or file) contains a DACL (discretionary access control list) enumeration which users and groups may access the object. See: Access Control List for more information. Key point: There are different kinds of access. Read access means that somebody can read information, whereas write access implies that somebody can change the data. For example, you can get a copy of your credit report and read it, but you can&apos;t necessarily change the data. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -12908,7 +12908,7 @@ avra
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Assembler for Atmel AVR microcontrollers Avra is an assembler for the Atmel&apos;s family of AVR 8-bit RISC microcontrollers. It is is mostly compatible with Atmel&apos;s own assembler, but adds new features such as better macro support and additional preprocessor directives. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Assembler for Atmel AVR microcontrollers Avra is an assembler for the Atmel&apos;s family of AVR 8-bit RISC microcontrollers. It is mostly compatible with Atmel&apos;s own assembler, but adds new features such as better macro support and additional preprocessor directives. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -704,7 +704,7 @@ bash
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
The default command interpreter, or shell, for Red Hat Linux. bash features several enhancements to sh, such as built-in file management commands and support for completion of commands and paths using the the [Tab] key. From Redhat-9-Glossary
The default command interpreter, or shell, for Red Hat Linux. bash features several enhancements to sh, such as built-in file management commands and support for completion of commands and paths using the [Tab] key. From Redhat-9-Glossary
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -1208,7 +1208,7 @@ BBS (Bulletin Board System)
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Electronic BBSs formed much of the the core &quot;cyberspace&quot; in the 1980s. Telecommunication costs were high, so rather than interconnected via &quot;always-on&quot; connections, such systems transfered files and messages as irregular intervals over dial-up lines. Mail was transported through BBS via protocols like FidoNet and UUCP. Files would move themselves from system to system as users would download from one BBS and upload to others. Many of today&apos;s older hackers were active in the BBS community of the 1980s. From Hacking-Lexicon
Electronic BBSs formed much of the core &quot;cyberspace&quot; in the 1980s. Telecommunication costs were high, so rather than interconnected via &quot;always-on&quot; connections, such systems transfered files and messages as irregular intervals over dial-up lines. Mail was transported through BBS via protocols like FidoNet and UUCP. Files would move themselves from system to system as users would download from one BBS and upload to others. Many of today&apos;s older hackers were active in the BBS community of the 1980s. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -6980,7 +6980,7 @@ bugsquish
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! &quot;Bug Squish&quot; is an action game not unlike light gun arcade games, but played with a mouse. It&apos;s loosely based on a MacOS game whose name I can&apos;t recall. Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! Squish them with with your fly swatter before you run out of blood. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! &quot;Bug Squish&quot; is an action game not unlike light gun arcade games, but played with a mouse. It&apos;s loosely based on a MacOS game whose name I can&apos;t recall. Bugs are trying to suck blood out of your arm! Squish them with your fly swatter before you run out of blood. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -5132,7 +5132,7 @@ chbg
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
A tool for changing the desktop background image in X11 A GTK+ based program that lets you periodically change your X desktop. It has several random effects, a slideshow, and and may act as a xscreensaver hack or as a standalone screensaver. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
A tool for changing the desktop background image in X11 A GTK+ based program that lets you periodically change your X desktop. It has several random effects, a slideshow and may act as a xscreensaver hack or as a standalone screensaver. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -6632,7 +6632,7 @@ ClarkConnect
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
ClarkConnect is a Red Hat based distribution which can can transform standard PC hardware into a dedicated broadband gateway and easy-to-use server. The software is a great solution for small businesses, home offices, and networked homes. ClarkConnect version 1.1 was released July 31, 2002. From LWN Distribution List
ClarkConnect is a Red Hat based distribution which can transform standard PC hardware into a dedicated broadband gateway and easy-to-use server. The software is a great solution for small businesses, home offices, and networked homes. ClarkConnect version 1.1 was released July 31, 2002. From LWN Distribution List
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -3872,7 +3872,7 @@ Debian-Med
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Debian-Med is an internal Debian project to support tasks of people in medical care. The goal of Debian-Med is to build a a complete system for all tasks in medical care, using only free software. A &apos;special purpose/mini&apos; distribution. From LWN Distribution List
Debian-Med is an internal Debian project to support tasks of people in medical care. The goal of Debian-Med is to build a complete system for all tasks in medical care, using only free software. A &apos;special purpose/mini&apos; distribution. From LWN Distribution List
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -6860,7 +6860,7 @@ Diffie-Hellman (DH)
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
The original public-key algorithm. Modern cryptography starts in 1976 when Diffie and Hellman published their groundbreaking paper &quot;New Directions in Cryptography&quot;. Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DH is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. Whereas RSA can be used to encrypt messages, DH can only be used for key-exchange. However, RSA is essentially only used for key-exchange in the first place. The disadvantages of DH vs. RSA are: message expansion DH encrypted messages are larger (though this isn&apos;t really an issue for key-exchange). key size Current standards (e.g. DSS) specify smaller key sizes than those supported by RSA-based standards. CPU DH based standards take processing time than RSA based equivalents (and a lot more than than elliptical curve techniques). Advantages of DH over RSA are: patents This is no longer an important issue now that RSA patents have expired, but the reason DH became popular was because it was essentially patent-free. key generation It takes a long time to generate RSA keys, so DH is a better option if keys must be generated often. key size For keys of the same size, DH is more secure. In other words, it takes longer keys for RSA to be as secure as DH. security DH is conjectured to be less likely to be broken by new developements in mathematical theory. Contrast: The most common use of Diffie-Hellman is ElGamal, a public-key encryption variant of Diffie-Hellman. The U.S. government standard DSS is based upon ElGamal. See also: RSA, public-key crypto. From Hacking-Lexicon
The original public-key algorithm. Modern cryptography starts in 1976 when Diffie and Hellman published their groundbreaking paper &quot;New Directions in Cryptography&quot;. Contrast: Whereas RSA is based upon the mathematical problem of factoring large numbers, DH is based upon the discrete logarithm problem. Whereas RSA can be used to encrypt messages, DH can only be used for key-exchange. However, RSA is essentially only used for key-exchange in the first place. The disadvantages of DH vs. RSA are: message expansion DH encrypted messages are larger (though this isn&apos;t really an issue for key-exchange). key size Current standards (e.g. DSS) specify smaller key sizes than those supported by RSA-based standards. CPU DH based standards take processing time than RSA based equivalents (and a lot more than elliptical curve techniques). Advantages of DH over RSA are: patents This is no longer an important issue now that RSA patents have expired, but the reason DH became popular was because it was essentially patent-free. key generation It takes a long time to generate RSA keys, so DH is a better option if keys must be generated often. key size For keys of the same size, DH is more secure. In other words, it takes longer keys for RSA to be as secure as DH. security DH is conjectured to be less likely to be broken by new developements in mathematical theory. Contrast: The most common use of Diffie-Hellman is ElGamal, a public-key encryption variant of Diffie-Hellman. The U.S. government standard DSS is based upon ElGamal. See also: RSA, public-key crypto. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -10868,7 +10868,7 @@ dpkg-iasearch
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
An interface to find relevant packages in Debian. This package adds some tools to find relevant packages in Debian using simple queries, both in natural language and by keywords. It makes uses of the document-vectoring program arrow, adding scripts to make use of it to index the Packages database, and to make queries on to it. Its functionality is similar to dlocate but uses a different (more useful?) approach to make the binary database. This package is a proof-of-concept package, any kind of improvements are are welcomed, although this idea should be part of a dpkg frontend {T,G}UI. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
An interface to find relevant packages in Debian. This package adds some tools to find relevant packages in Debian using simple queries, both in natural language and by keywords. It makes uses of the document-vectoring program arrow, adding scripts to make use of it to index the Packages database, and to make queries on to it. Its functionality is similar to dlocate but uses a different (more useful?) approach to make the binary database. This package is a proof-of-concept package, any kind of improvements are welcomed, although this idea should be part of a dpkg frontend {T,G}UI. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -11348,7 +11348,7 @@ dput
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Debian package upload tool This script will allow you to put one or more Debian packages into the archive. It includes some tests to verify that the package is policy-compliant. It offers the possibility to run lintian before the upload. It can also run dinstall in dry-run-mode, when having used an appropriate upload method. This is very useful to see if the the upload will pass dinstall sanity checks in the next run. It&apos;s intended for Debian maintainers only. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Debian package upload tool This script will allow you to put one or more Debian packages into the archive. It includes some tests to verify that the package is policy-compliant. It offers the possibility to run lintian before the upload. It can also run dinstall in dry-run-mode, when having used an appropriate upload method. This is very useful to see if the upload will pass dinstall sanity checks in the next run. It&apos;s intended for Debian maintainers only. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -6692,7 +6692,7 @@ Eurielec Linux
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
This was a project started by a a club of students at ETSIT (UPM), according to the Spanish web site. Distribution development is not all that active. From LWN Distribution List
This was a project started by a club of students at ETSIT (UPM), according to the Spanish web site. Distribution development is not all that active. From LWN Distribution List
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -3500,7 +3500,7 @@ Firewall
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
A security procedure that places a specially progammed computer system between an organisation&apos;s Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet. The firewall computer precents acrackes from accessing the internal network. Unfortunately, it also prevents the organisation&apos;s copmuter uses form gaining direct access to the Internet. The access the the firewall provides is indirect and mediated by programs called proxy servers. From QUECID
A security procedure that places a specially progammed computer system between an organisation&apos;s Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet. The firewall computer precents acrackes from accessing the internal network. Unfortunately, it also prevents the organisation&apos;s copmuter uses form gaining direct access to the Internet. The access the firewall provides is indirect and mediated by programs called proxy servers. From QUECID
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -7640,7 +7640,7 @@ fuzzy hashing
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
a hashing scheme which can handle range based lookups and multiple keys. It was born from debugging problems arising from from the removal of the old AVL tree mechanism for finding the virtual memory area (vma) associated with a page fault. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux
a hashing scheme which can handle range based lookups and multiple keys. It was born from debugging problems arising from the removal of the old AVL tree mechanism for finding the virtual memory area (vma) associated with a page fault. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -3488,7 +3488,7 @@ glimmer
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Programmer&apos;s editor with multiple windows and syntax highlighting Glimmer is a simple code editor for use with just about any programming language, which makes use of of the Gtk+ widget set and the GNOME libraries, which includes drag and drop support. It includes syntax and bracket highlighting, the ability to build from within the editor, and support for saving sessions of many different code files open at once. Most settings can be customised from within the editor. Glimmer includes support for the following languages: Ada, bash/sh, C, C++, FORTRAN, HTML, Java, Javascript, Latex, GNU Make, Perl, PHP, Python, Lisp (guile, scheme, etc), SGML, SQL, Tcl/Tk, XML, XHTML, and Z80 Assembly, to name a few. Glimmer is also very extensible in the languages it supports for its syntax highlighting. If support for your language of choice is not included, you can write it very easily. In addition to this, Glimmer is completely scriptable with python. See http://glimmer.sourceforge.net for more information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Programmer&apos;s editor with multiple windows and syntax highlighting Glimmer is a simple code editor for use with just about any programming language, which makes use of the Gtk+ widget set and the GNOME libraries, which includes drag and drop support. It includes syntax and bracket highlighting, the ability to build from within the editor, and support for saving sessions of many different code files open at once. Most settings can be customised from within the editor. Glimmer includes support for the following languages: Ada, bash/sh, C, C++, FORTRAN, HTML, Java, Javascript, Latex, GNU Make, Perl, PHP, Python, Lisp (guile, scheme, etc), SGML, SQL, Tcl/Tk, XML, XHTML, and Z80 Assembly, to name a few. Glimmer is also very extensible in the languages it supports for its syntax highlighting. If support for your language of choice is not included, you can write it very easily. In addition to this, Glimmer is completely scriptable with python. See http://glimmer.sourceforge.net for more information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -5144,7 +5144,7 @@ gnome-sudo
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
GUI frontend to sudo gnome-sudo will popup a dialog requesting the password for the user to run as (if necessary, sudo has caching), and copies ~/.Xauthority so that that user can reach it. This is to provide a way for GUI programs (such as package managers) to run in an easy, point-and-drool fashion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
GUI frontend to sudo gnome-sudo will popup a dialog requesting the password for the user to run as (if necessary, sudo has caching), and copies ~/.Xauthority so that the user can reach it. This is to provide a way for GUI programs (such as package managers) to run in an easy, point-and-drool fashion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -5936,7 +5936,7 @@ gnupg
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement. GnuPG is GNU&apos;s tool for secure communication and data storage. It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures. It includes an advanced key management facility and is compliant with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard as described in RFC2440. GnuPG does not use use any patented algorithms so it cannot be compatible with PGP2 because it uses IDEA (which is patented worldwide) and RSA. RSA&apos;s patent expired on the 20th September 2000, and it is now included in GnuPG. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement. GnuPG is GNU&apos;s tool for secure communication and data storage. It can be used to encrypt data and to create digital signatures. It includes an advanced key management facility and is compliant with the proposed OpenPGP Internet standard as described in RFC2440. GnuPG does not use any patented algorithms so it cannot be compatible with PGP2 because it uses IDEA (which is patented worldwide) and RSA. RSA&apos;s patent expired on the 20th September 2000, and it is now included in GnuPG. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -2024,7 +2024,7 @@ hindent
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Reformats HTML code This utility reformats HTML code to be properly indented/nested for improved readability. You can indent the existing lines as-is, or totally reformat the code to have one tag per line. Hindent is useful in deciphering software-generated HTML code when it&apos;s all just one huge line, or help you find find that last missing end-tag, or deal with code victimized by creeping featurism. Written in Perl for Unix. Understands all HTML 3.2 nestable tags. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Reformats HTML code This utility reformats HTML code to be properly indented/nested for improved readability. You can indent the existing lines as-is, or totally reformat the code to have one tag per line. Hindent is useful in deciphering software-generated HTML code when it&apos;s all just one huge line, or help you find that last missing end-tag, or deal with code victimized by creeping featurism. Written in Perl for Unix. Understands all HTML 3.2 nestable tags. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -2252,7 +2252,7 @@ IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
IDEA is a symmetric block cipher algorithm. It is popular because it is used in PGP, but due to commercial licensing issues, it is not popular elsewhere. Controversy: IDEA is one of the few (widely-used) ciphers protected by patents; it requires a license for commercial use. PGP is no longer using IDEA as its default cipher because of this. Notes: It was developed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey. It uses 128-bit keys. There is no known way to break it other than brute-force. It was published in 1990. Its patents are held by the Swiss company &quot;Ascom-Tech AG&quot;. Misconception: The name implies that IDEA is some sort of official standard -- it isn&apos;t. However, it is is widely used, and is an option on many standards. Applications: PGP From Hacking-Lexicon
IDEA is a symmetric block cipher algorithm. It is popular because it is used in PGP, but due to commercial licensing issues, it is not popular elsewhere. Controversy: IDEA is one of the few (widely-used) ciphers protected by patents; it requires a license for commercial use. PGP is no longer using IDEA as its default cipher because of this. Notes: It was developed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey. It uses 128-bit keys. There is no known way to break it other than brute-force. It was published in 1990. Its patents are held by the Swiss company &quot;Ascom-Tech AG&quot;. Misconception: The name implies that IDEA is some sort of official standard -- it isn&apos;t. However, it is widely used, and is an option on many standards. Applications: PGP From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -3080,7 +3080,7 @@ iesperanto
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
The Esperanto dictionary for ispell. This is the the Esperanto dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary is based on the words from Plena Ilustrita Vortaro, with additional country/language names. It accepts Latin-3, `cx&apos; and `^c&apos; forms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
The Esperanto dictionary for ispell. This is the Esperanto dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary is based on the words from Plena Ilustrita Vortaro, with additional country/language names. It accepts Latin-3, `cx&apos; and `^c&apos; forms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -3728,7 +3728,7 @@ kpsewhich
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
standalone path lookup and and expansion for kpathsea From whatis
standalone path lookup and expansion for kpathsea From whatis
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -740,7 +740,7 @@ latex2html
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
LaTeX to HTML translator. LaTeX2HTML is a conversion tool that that converts documents written in LaTeX to HTML format. In addition, it offers an easy migration path towards authoring complex hypermedia documents using familiar word-processing concepts. LaTeX2HTML replicates the basic structure of a LaTeX document as a set of interconnected HTML files which can be explored using automatically generated navigation panels. The cross-references, citations, footnotes, the table of contents and the lists of figures and tables, are also translated into hypertext links. Formatting information which has equivalent ``tags&apos;&apos; in HTML (lists, quotes, paragraph breaks, type styles, etc.) is also converted appropriately. The remaining heavily formatted items such as mathematical equations, pictures or tables are converted to images which are placed automatically at the correct positions in the final HTML document. LaTeX2HTML extends LaTeX by supporting arbitrary hypertext links and symbolic cross-references between evolving remote documents. It also allows the specification of conditional text and the inclusion of raw HTML commands. These hypermedia extensions to LaTeX are available as new commands and environments from within a LaTeX document. Pstoimg, the part of latex2html that produces bitmap images from the LaTeX source, can support both GIF and PNG format. Because of certain legal limitations on the use of the GIF image format, GIF support is disabled in this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
LaTeX to HTML translator. LaTeX2HTML is a conversion tool that converts documents written in LaTeX to HTML format. In addition, it offers an easy migration path towards authoring complex hypermedia documents using familiar word-processing concepts. LaTeX2HTML replicates the basic structure of a LaTeX document as a set of interconnected HTML files which can be explored using automatically generated navigation panels. The cross-references, citations, footnotes, the table of contents and the lists of figures and tables, are also translated into hypertext links. Formatting information which has equivalent ``tags&apos;&apos; in HTML (lists, quotes, paragraph breaks, type styles, etc.) is also converted appropriately. The remaining heavily formatted items such as mathematical equations, pictures or tables are converted to images which are placed automatically at the correct positions in the final HTML document. LaTeX2HTML extends LaTeX by supporting arbitrary hypertext links and symbolic cross-references between evolving remote documents. It also allows the specification of conditional text and the inclusion of raw HTML commands. These hypermedia extensions to LaTeX are available as new commands and environments from within a LaTeX document. Pstoimg, the part of latex2html that produces bitmap images from the LaTeX source, can support both GIF and PNG format. Because of certain legal limitations on the use of the GIF image format, GIF support is disabled in this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -1472,7 +1472,7 @@ ldap2dns
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
LDAP based DNS management system. ldap2dns is a program to create DNS (Domain Name Service) records directly from a LDAP directory. It can and should be be used to replace the secondary name-server by a second primary one. ldap2dns reduces all kind of administration overhead: No more flat file editing, no more zone file editing. After having installed ldap2dns, the administrator only has to access the LDAP directory. ldap2dns is designed to write ASCII data files used by tinydns from the djbdns package, but also may be used to write .db-files used by named as found in the BIND package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
LDAP based DNS management system. ldap2dns is a program to create DNS (Domain Name Service) records directly from a LDAP directory. It can and should be used to replace the secondary name-server by a second primary one. ldap2dns reduces all kind of administration overhead: No more flat file editing, no more zone file editing. After having installed ldap2dns, the administrator only has to access the LDAP directory. ldap2dns is designed to write ASCII data files used by tinydns from the djbdns package, but also may be used to write .db-files used by named as found in the BIND package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -5228,7 +5228,7 @@ Linux
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
/lee&apos;nuhks/ or /li&apos;nuks/, not /li:&apos;nuhks/ n. The free Unix workalike created by Linus Torvalds and friends starting about 1991. The pronunciation /lee&apos;nuhks/ is preferred because the name `Linus&apos; has an /ee/ sound in Swedish (Linus&apos;s family is part of Finland&apos;s 6% ethnic-Swedish minority). This may be the most remarkable hacker project in history -- an entire clone of Unix for 386, 486 and Pentium micros, distributed for free with sources over the net (ports to Alpha and Sparc and many other machines are also in use). Linux is what GNU aimed to be, and it relies on the GNU toolset. But the Free Software Foundation didn&apos;t produce the kernel to go with that toolset until 1999, which was too late. Other, similar efforts like FreeBSD and NetBSD have been technically successful but never caught fire the way Linux has; as this is written in 2000, Linux is seriously challenging Microsoft&apos;s OS dominance. It has already captured 31% of the Internet-server market and 25% of general business servers. An earlier version of this entry opined &quot;The secret of Linux&apos;s success seems to be that Linus worked much harder early on to keep the development process open and recruit other hackers, creating a snowball effect.&quot; Truer than we knew. See bazaar. (Some people object that the name `Linux&apos; should be used to refer only to the kernel, not the entire operating system. This claim is a proxy for an underlying territorial dispute; people who insist on the term `GNU/Linux&apos; want the the FSF to get most of the credit for Linux because RMS and friends wrote many of its user-level tools. Neither this theory nor the term `GNU/Linux&apos; has gained more than minority acceptance). From Jargon Dictionary
/lee&apos;nuhks/ or /li&apos;nuks/, not /li:&apos;nuhks/ n. The free Unix workalike created by Linus Torvalds and friends starting about 1991. The pronunciation /lee&apos;nuhks/ is preferred because the name `Linus&apos; has an /ee/ sound in Swedish (Linus&apos;s family is part of Finland&apos;s 6% ethnic-Swedish minority). This may be the most remarkable hacker project in history -- an entire clone of Unix for 386, 486 and Pentium micros, distributed for free with sources over the net (ports to Alpha and Sparc and many other machines are also in use). Linux is what GNU aimed to be, and it relies on the GNU toolset. But the Free Software Foundation didn&apos;t produce the kernel to go with that toolset until 1999, which was too late. Other, similar efforts like FreeBSD and NetBSD have been technically successful but never caught fire the way Linux has; as this is written in 2000, Linux is seriously challenging Microsoft&apos;s OS dominance. It has already captured 31% of the Internet-server market and 25% of general business servers. An earlier version of this entry opined &quot;The secret of Linux&apos;s success seems to be that Linus worked much harder early on to keep the development process open and recruit other hackers, creating a snowball effect.&quot; Truer than we knew. See bazaar. (Some people object that the name `Linux&apos; should be used to refer only to the kernel, not the entire operating system. This claim is a proxy for an underlying territorial dispute; people who insist on the term `GNU/Linux&apos; want the FSF to get most of the credit for Linux because RMS and friends wrote many of its user-level tools. Neither this theory nor the term `GNU/Linux&apos; has gained more than minority acceptance). From Jargon Dictionary
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -5012,7 +5012,7 @@ pgi
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Progeny graphical installer creation system This package contains PGI, a multi-architecture graphical installer creation system for Debian GNU/Linux originally developed by Progeny Linux Systems, Inc., for their Debian-based &quot;Progeny Debian&quot; operating system. This package enables the user to create ISO images containing a bootable installer (PGI) which guides the user through the steps of installation. The installer supports text and graphical installation modes. PGI runs debootstrap to install a minimal Debian system to the target filesystem(s), sets up a boot loader (if the installing user requests), and uses the pivot_root() system call to &quot;boot&quot; into the installed system. ISO images may be generated with complete or partial Debian package archives, or with the the installer only (useful for network-only installs, which PGI supports.) PGI is extensible and customizable. Two example extensions are provided with this package; one uses the base-config package, while the other configures the installed system using the X-based Configlet system. Two manuals are provided as part of this package. &quot;Creating Debian Installers with PGI&quot; documents the setup and configuration of a PGI-based installer ISO in detail. &quot;Using the PGI Debian Installer&quot; is an example of a PGI user&apos;s manual. Those creating custom installers with PGI will want to update the user&apos;s manual for their target audience. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Progeny graphical installer creation system This package contains PGI, a multi-architecture graphical installer creation system for Debian GNU/Linux originally developed by Progeny Linux Systems, Inc., for their Debian-based &quot;Progeny Debian&quot; operating system. This package enables the user to create ISO images containing a bootable installer (PGI) which guides the user through the steps of installation. The installer supports text and graphical installation modes. PGI runs debootstrap to install a minimal Debian system to the target filesystem(s), sets up a boot loader (if the installing user requests), and uses the pivot_root() system call to &quot;boot&quot; into the installed system. ISO images may be generated with complete or partial Debian package archives, or with the installer only (useful for network-only installs, which PGI supports.) PGI is extensible and customizable. Two example extensions are provided with this package; one uses the base-config package, while the other configures the installed system using the X-based Configlet system. Two manuals are provided as part of this package. &quot;Creating Debian Installers with PGI&quot; documents the setup and configuration of a PGI-based installer ISO in detail. &quot;Using the PGI Debian Installer&quot; is an example of a PGI user&apos;s manual. Those creating custom installers with PGI will want to update the user&apos;s manual for their target audience. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -5672,7 +5672,7 @@ picasm
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Assembler for the Microchip PIC-family Microcontrollers An assembler for the the Microchip PIC family of microcontrollers. Supports the majority of the Microchip PIC family. Uses Microchip (not Parallax) syntax. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Assembler for the Microchip PIC-family Microcontrollers An assembler for the Microchip PIC family of microcontrollers. Supports the majority of the Microchip PIC family. Uses Microchip (not Parallax) syntax. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -12668,7 +12668,7 @@ FORTRAN source code From Whatis-Extensions
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
On UNIX, a user can place an e-mail address in his &quot;.forward&quot; file. This will cause all e-mail sent to his account to be forwarded to that e-mail address. This file a is prime target of attackers. If they can overwrite this file, they can subtly start capturing the user&apos;s e-mail. This is especially dangerous if the the account in question is the root account. Note that the user doesn&apos;t have to know any about this file or have one on his system. The mere creation of this file by the intruder will activate this feature. Furthermore, since this file starts with a &apos;dot&apos;, it is normally hidden from the user, so they won&apos;t even be ware that this feature exists. From Hacking-Lexicon
On UNIX, a user can place an e-mail address in his &quot;.forward&quot; file. This will cause all e-mail sent to his account to be forwarded to that e-mail address. This file a is prime target of attackers. If they can overwrite this file, they can subtly start capturing the user&apos;s e-mail. This is especially dangerous if the account in question is the root account. Note that the user doesn&apos;t have to know any about this file or have one on his system. The mere creation of this file by the intruder will activate this feature. Furthermore, since this file starts with a &apos;dot&apos;, it is normally hidden from the user, so they won&apos;t even be ware that this feature exists. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ qm
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Quality Management Tools Quality Management Tools, the former &apos;Software Carpentry Project&apos;. QMTest is the first tool released as a result of the Software Carpentry project. (Hopefully) forthcoming tools are: - a platform investigation and project reconfiguration tool to supersede autoconf. - a dependency management and program reconstruction tool to to supersede make. - an issue tracking system to supersede gnats and bugzilla. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Quality Management Tools Quality Management Tools, the former &apos;Software Carpentry Project&apos;. QMTest is the first tool released as a result of the Software Carpentry project. (Hopefully) forthcoming tools are: - a platform investigation and project reconfiguration tool to supersede autoconf. - a dependency management and program reconstruction tool to supersede make. - an issue tracking system to supersede gnats and bugzilla. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -3224,7 +3224,7 @@ redhat-switch-printer-gnome
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
The redhat-switch-printer-gnome package contains a GNOME interface for the The Printing System Switcher. From Redhat 8.0 RPM
The redhat-switch-printer-gnome package contains a GNOME interface for the Printing System Switcher. From Redhat 8.0 RPM
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -2516,7 +2516,7 @@ scite
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Lightweight GTK-based Programming Editor GTK-based Programming with with syntax highlighting support for many languages. Also supports folding sections, exporting highlighted text into colored HTML and RTF. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Lightweight GTK-based Programming Editor GTK-based Programming with syntax highlighting support for many languages. Also supports folding sections, exporting highlighted text into colored HTML and RTF. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -5900,7 +5900,7 @@ setcd
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Control the behaviour of your cdrom device This program allows you to control the behaviour of your Linux cdrom player. You&apos;ll need a cdrom device that complies to the new interface defined in linux/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex. For kernel 2.0 this is only the cm206 drive, for kernel 2.1 this includes IDE and SCSI drives. You can control: auto close, auto eject, medium type checking and tray locking. You can get information on the volume name of cdroms and other data, and you can set the speed of your drive and choose a disc from a jukebox. In order to fully exploit the possibilities, you&apos;ll need libc6 and a recent version of the the linux kernel, but you will get decent error behaviour in return. Expect a message &quot;No medium found&quot; if you attempt to mount an empty drive or &quot;Wrong medium type&quot; if you try to mount an audio disc, instead of a whole load of kernel error messages. The source of this package may be an example for cdrom player program developers that wish to exploit the features of the new cdrom interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Control the behaviour of your cdrom device This program allows you to control the behaviour of your Linux cdrom player. You&apos;ll need a cdrom device that complies to the new interface defined in linux/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex. For kernel 2.0 this is only the cm206 drive, for kernel 2.1 this includes IDE and SCSI drives. You can control: auto close, auto eject, medium type checking and tray locking. You can get information on the volume name of cdroms and other data, and you can set the speed of your drive and choose a disc from a jukebox. In order to fully exploit the possibilities, you&apos;ll need libc6 and a recent version of the linux kernel, but you will get decent error behaviour in return. Expect a message &quot;No medium found&quot; if you attempt to mount an empty drive or &quot;Wrong medium type&quot; if you try to mount an audio disc, instead of a whole load of kernel error messages. The source of this package may be an example for cdrom player program developers that wish to exploit the features of the new cdrom interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -13328,7 +13328,7 @@ Sorcerer
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
This distribution was created by the original Sorcerer GNU/Linux author, Kyle Sallee. Sources are downloaded directly from software authors&apos; homepages and mirrors. Then, they are compiled with the architecture and optimizations that the system administrator specifies. Finally, it is installed, tracked, and archived for easy removal and upgrades. Sorcerer has both both command line and menu driven package mangement programs. A public beta, not backward compatible with previous releases of SGL, was made available April 14, 2002. From LWN Distribution List
This distribution was created by the original Sorcerer GNU/Linux author, Kyle Sallee. Sources are downloaded directly from software authors&apos; homepages and mirrors. Then, they are compiled with the architecture and optimizations that the system administrator specifies. Finally, it is installed, tracked, and archived for easy removal and upgrades. Sorcerer has both command line and menu driven package mangement programs. A public beta, not backward compatible with previous releases of SGL, was made available April 14, 2002. From LWN Distribution List
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -13592,7 +13592,7 @@ source route
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
In network network protocols, source routing is the capability whereby the sender can specify the route a packet should take. Analogy: Somebody asks you how to get to the freeway. You can give them two responses: You tell them to drive a little further on, and there will be signs pointing to the freeway. You tell them just to follow the signs. This is normal routing: you simply hand the packet off to the routers, and let them worry about which direction the packet takes. You tell them to drive up 3 blocks, turn left, then go 2 blocks, then turn right, then go one more block and bear left onto the onramp. This is source routing: you tell the packet every hop it should take through the network. Key point: The hacker can give the packets routes that go around firewalls. From Hacking-Lexicon
In network protocols, source routing is the capability whereby the sender can specify the route a packet should take. Analogy: Somebody asks you how to get to the freeway. You can give them two responses: You tell them to drive a little further on, and there will be signs pointing to the freeway. You tell them just to follow the signs. This is normal routing: you simply hand the packet off to the routers, and let them worry about which direction the packet takes. You tell them to drive up 3 blocks, turn left, then go 2 blocks, then turn right, then go one more block and bear left onto the onramp. This is source routing: you tell the packet every hop it should take through the network. Key point: The hacker can give the packets routes that go around firewalls. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -13892,7 +13892,7 @@ spam
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Most spam comes through open SMTP relays. Spam is generally sent through the SMTP mail transfer protocol, though spammers are increasingly making use of web-based e-mail. A big source of spam comes from people who spider websites looking for web-pages that contain e-mail addresses. Since a lot of a web-sites will archive mailing lists and USENET groups, posting to a &quot;private&quot; list will often still expose your e-mail address. The SirCam worm of 2001 spidered the HTML files on the local web-browser cache to forward e-mail, creating a hugely effective manner for discovering new e-mail addresses. Spammers will usually spoof their e-mail address -- you can virtually never reply to the &quot;sender&quot; e-mail address. Netiquette: Use Bcc to send to multiple recipients rather than Cc: or To: fields in order to avoid exposing friends e-mail addresses to potential spammers. Firewalls don&apos;t block spam. The @Home cable modem ISP now regularly scans its customers for open USENET relays that spammers often hijack in order to forward spam on newsgroups. Some people are so emotionally against spam that they will will completely shun all access from networks known to be sources of spam. Websites will sometimes scan clients with SNMP or NetBIOS in order to discover their login name. Likewise, some websites sift HTTP fields for usernames (though virtually all web-browsers have disabled this feature). A Rumpelstiltskin attack is where a spammer sends e-mail to all possible names (a@example.com, b@example.com, c@example.com, ...) at a domain. This is similar to a brute-force attack. From Hacking-Lexicon
Most spam comes through open SMTP relays. Spam is generally sent through the SMTP mail transfer protocol, though spammers are increasingly making use of web-based e-mail. A big source of spam comes from people who spider websites looking for web-pages that contain e-mail addresses. Since a lot of a web-sites will archive mailing lists and USENET groups, posting to a &quot;private&quot; list will often still expose your e-mail address. The SirCam worm of 2001 spidered the HTML files on the local web-browser cache to forward e-mail, creating a hugely effective manner for discovering new e-mail addresses. Spammers will usually spoof their e-mail address -- you can virtually never reply to the &quot;sender&quot; e-mail address. Netiquette: Use Bcc to send to multiple recipients rather than Cc: or To: fields in order to avoid exposing friends e-mail addresses to potential spammers. Firewalls don&apos;t block spam. The @Home cable modem ISP now regularly scans its customers for open USENET relays that spammers often hijack in order to forward spam on newsgroups. Some people are so emotionally against spam that they will completely shun all access from networks known to be sources of spam. Websites will sometimes scan clients with SNMP or NetBIOS in order to discover their login name. Likewise, some websites sift HTTP fields for usernames (though virtually all web-browsers have disabled this feature). A Rumpelstiltskin attack is where a spammer sends e-mail to all possible names (a@example.com, b@example.com, c@example.com, ...) at a domain. This is similar to a brute-force attack. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -17060,7 +17060,7 @@ stalin
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
An extremely aggressive Scheme compiler. stalin is an aggressive self-hosting Scheme compiler, designed to generate resource efficient stand-alone executables with very high computational performance. It is a batch mode compiler like gcc, not an interpreter, and is designed to be used only after your code has stabilized. It places a few limitations on the content of the source code. For example, you may not not LOAD or EVAL new expressions or procedure definitions at runtime, but in exchange, it is able to perform various global analyses which may allow it to transparently map Scheme types to C types and to use native C arithmetic operations on a per-expression basis, whenever such operations are proven safe. Further stalin can often reduce or eliminate run-time type checking and dispatching, and omit garbage collection for data of limited scope or accessability, while omitting unreachable data altogether. stalin also has a foreign procedure interface to both Xlib and OpenGL. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
An extremely aggressive Scheme compiler. stalin is an aggressive self-hosting Scheme compiler, designed to generate resource efficient stand-alone executables with very high computational performance. It is a batch mode compiler like gcc, not an interpreter, and is designed to be used only after your code has stabilized. It places a few limitations on the content of the source code. For example, you may not LOAD or EVAL new expressions or procedure definitions at runtime, but in exchange, it is able to perform various global analyses which may allow it to transparently map Scheme types to C types and to use native C arithmetic operations on a per-expression basis, whenever such operations are proven safe. Further stalin can often reduce or eliminate run-time type checking and dispatching, and omit garbage collection for data of limited scope or accessability, while omitting unreachable data altogether. stalin also has a foreign procedure interface to both Xlib and OpenGL. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -20108,7 +20108,7 @@ symlink (symbolic link)
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
On UNIX, a symbolic link is where a file in one directory acts as a pointer to a file in another directory. For example, you could create a link so that all accesses to the file /tmp/foo really act upon the file /etc/passwd. This feature can often be exploited. While a non-root user does not have permission to write to administrative files like /etc/passwd, they can certainly create links to them in the /tmp directory or their local directory. SUID can then be exploited whereby they believe they are acting upon a user file, which which are instead acting upon the original administrative file. This is the leading way that local users can escalate their privileges on a system. Example: finger A user could link their .plan file to any other file on the system. A finger daemon running with root privileges would then follow the link to that file and read it upon execution of a finger lookup. From Hacking-Lexicon
On UNIX, a symbolic link is where a file in one directory acts as a pointer to a file in another directory. For example, you could create a link so that all accesses to the file /tmp/foo really act upon the file /etc/passwd. This feature can often be exploited. While a non-root user does not have permission to write to administrative files like /etc/passwd, they can certainly create links to them in the /tmp directory or their local directory. SUID can then be exploited whereby they believe they are acting upon a user file, which are instead acting upon the original administrative file. This is the leading way that local users can escalate their privileges on a system. Example: finger A user could link their .plan file to any other file on the system. A finger daemon running with root privileges would then follow the link to that file and read it upon execution of a finger lookup. From Hacking-Lexicon
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -20180,7 +20180,7 @@ sympa
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Modern mailing list manager Sympa is a scalable and highly customizable modern mailing list manager which can cope with big lists (200,000 subscribers). It can can handle a lots of useful features : - Moderation - Digest mode - Authentication (for subscription process) - Archive management - Multi-language support (us, fr, de, as, it, fi and Chinese locales) - Expiration process - Virtual domains (virtual robots) - Accesses to LDAP directories - Using a RDBMS for storing subscriber information (it supports both MySQL and PostgreSQL). - S/MIME encryption and HTTPS authentication Sympa provides a scripting language for extending the behaviour of commands, and a complete (user and admin) Web interface called WWSympa. SYMPA means &apos;Systhme de Multi-Postage Automatique&apos; (French) or &apos;Automatic Mailing System&apos; (English). It is written in Perl and uses some modules (mailtools, md5, msgcat, db). WWSympa is provided in a separate package named `wwsympa&apos;. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Modern mailing list manager Sympa is a scalable and highly customizable modern mailing list manager which can cope with big lists (200,000 subscribers). It can handle a lots of useful features : - Moderation - Digest mode - Authentication (for subscription process) - Archive management - Multi-language support (us, fr, de, as, it, fi and Chinese locales) - Expiration process - Virtual domains (virtual robots) - Accesses to LDAP directories - Using a RDBMS for storing subscriber information (it supports both MySQL and PostgreSQL). - S/MIME encryption and HTTPS authentication Sympa provides a scripting language for extending the behaviour of commands, and a complete (user and admin) Web interface called WWSympa. SYMPA means &apos;Systhme de Multi-Postage Automatique&apos; (French) or &apos;Automatic Mailing System&apos; (English). It is written in Perl and uses some modules (mailtools, md5, msgcat, db). WWSympa is provided in a separate package named `wwsympa&apos;. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -1508,7 +1508,7 @@ umsdos
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
This is the distribution of the UMSDOS file system utilities. With the kernel configured accordingly these utilities allow the usage of of Unix filesystem feature on top of the MSDOS filesystem. It is even possible to run Linux completely on an MSDOS formatted disk without repartitioning or reformatting. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
This is the distribution of the UMSDOS file system utilities. With the kernel configured accordingly these utilities allow the usage of Unix filesystem feature on top of the MSDOS filesystem. It is even possible to run Linux completely on an MSDOS formatted disk without repartitioning or reformatting. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -3512,7 +3512,7 @@ userland
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
n. Anywhere outside the kernel. &quot;That code belongs in userland.&quot; This term has been in common use among Linux kernel hackers since at least 1997, and may have have originated in that community (a sighting has been reported from the 1995 archives of a NetBSD mailing list, however). From Jargon Dictionary
n. Anywhere outside the kernel. &quot;That code belongs in userland.&quot; This term has been in common use among Linux kernel hackers since at least 1997, and may have had originated in that community (a sighting has been reported from the 1995 archives of a NetBSD mailing list, however). From Jargon Dictionary
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -1064,7 +1064,7 @@ vdr-rcu
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with RCU control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the the &quot;Remote Control Unit&quot;. There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using PC keyboard or infrared remote control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with RCU control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the &quot;Remote Control Unit&quot;. There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using PC keyboard or infrared remote control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -1280,7 +1280,7 @@ webcam
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
capture and upload images webcam captures images from a video4linux device like bttv, annotates them and and uploads them to a webserver using ftp in a endless loop. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
capture and upload images webcam captures images from a video4linux device like bttv, annotates them and uploads them to a webserver using ftp in a endless loop. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -1328,7 +1328,7 @@ weblint
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
a syntax and minimal style checker for HTML This is perl script which picks fluff off html pages, much in the same way traditional lint picks fluff off C programs. The script is pretty much a a wrapper around the Weblint module. It currently supports HTML 4.0 (and only HTML 4.0). It allows the various syntax and stylistic checks to be enabled or disabled by the user or in a system-wide configuration file. NOTE: This is a beta release of Weblint 2.0 that provides a subset of of the final functionality. There are one or two features from 1.020 that aren&apos;t currently available. But this implements just about all the warnings from 1.020 and uses current HTML standards. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
a syntax and minimal style checker for HTML This is perl script which picks fluff off html pages, much in the same way traditional lint picks fluff off C programs. The script is pretty much a wrapper around the Weblint module. It currently supports HTML 4.0 (and only HTML 4.0). It allows the various syntax and stylistic checks to be enabled or disabled by the user or in a system-wide configuration file. NOTE: This is a beta release of Weblint 2.0 that provides a subset of the final functionality. There are one or two features from 1.020 that aren&apos;t currently available. But this implements just about all the warnings from 1.020 and uses current HTML standards. From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -3512,7 +3512,7 @@ wmtime
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
Displays time and date WMTime displays the time and date and gives you some nice additional features too. It is intended for docking in WindowMaker. WMTime currently provides: * Time and date; * Realtime morphing UI (analog &lt;&gt; digital mode); * Autoscaling and anti aliased hands; * Locale, can display DAY and DATE in various languages; * Can launch 3 user definable commands through ~/.wmtimerc; * Can be run multiple times; * Commandline options for help (-h), version (-v), digital clock mode (-digital) and and display (-d) From Debian 3.0r0 APT
Displays time and date WMTime displays the time and date and gives you some nice additional features too. It is intended for docking in WindowMaker. WMTime currently provides: * Time and date; * Realtime morphing UI (analog &lt;&gt; digital mode); * Autoscaling and anti aliased hands; * Locale, can display DAY and DATE in various languages; * Can launch 3 user definable commands through ~/.wmtimerc; * Can be run multiple times; * Commandline options for help (-h), version (-v), digital clock mode (-digital) and display (-d) From Debian 3.0r0 APT
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>
@ -4952,7 +4952,7 @@ WYSIWYG
</glossterm>
<glossdef>
<para>
/wiz&apos;ee-wig/ adj. [Traced to Flip Wilson&apos;s &quot;Geraldine&quot; character c.1970] Describes a user interface under which &quot;What You See Is What You Get&quot;, as opposed to one that uses more-or-less obscure commands that do not result in immediate visual feedback. True WYSIWYG in environments supporting multiple fonts or graphics is a a rarely-attained ideal; there are variants of this term to express real-world manifestations including WYSIAWYG (What You See Is Almost What You Get) and WYSIMOLWYG (What You See Is More or Less What You Get). All these can be mildly derogatory, as they are often used to refer to dumbed-down user-friendly interfaces targeted at non-programmers; a hacker has no fear of obscure commands (compare WYSIAYG). On the other hand, EMACS was one of the very first WYSIWYG editors, replacing (actually, at first overlaying) the extremely obscure, command-based TECO. See also WIMP environment. [Oddly enough, WYSIWYG has already made it into the OED, in lower case yet. --ESR] From Jargon Dictionary
/wiz&apos;ee-wig/ adj. [Traced to Flip Wilson&apos;s &quot;Geraldine&quot; character c.1970] Describes a user interface under which &quot;What You See Is What You Get&quot;, as opposed to one that uses more-or-less obscure commands that do not result in immediate visual feedback. True WYSIWYG in environments supporting multiple fonts or graphics is a rarely-attained ideal; there are variants of this term to express real-world manifestations including WYSIAWYG (What You See Is Almost What You Get) and WYSIMOLWYG (What You See Is More or Less What You Get). All these can be mildly derogatory, as they are often used to refer to dumbed-down user-friendly interfaces targeted at non-programmers; a hacker has no fear of obscure commands (compare WYSIAYG). On the other hand, EMACS was one of the very first WYSIWYG editors, replacing (actually, at first overlaying) the extremely obscure, command-based TECO. See also WIMP environment. [Oddly enough, WYSIWYG has already made it into the OED, in lower case yet. --ESR] From Jargon Dictionary
<ulink url="http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html">http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Dictionary/html/index.html</ulink>
</para>
</glossdef>

@ -6689,7 +6689,7 @@ let "b = $a + 1.3" # Error.
echo "b = $b" # b=1</programlisting>
</para>
<para>Use <link linkend="bcref">bc</link> in scripts that that need floating
<para>Use <link linkend="bcref">bc</link> in scripts that need floating
point calculations or math library functions.</para></caution>
@ -8802,7 +8802,7 @@ possibly_hanging_job &amp; {
# -------------------------------------------------------------- #
# However, this may not not work as specified if another process
# However, this may not work as specified if another process
#+ begins to run after the "hanging_job" . . .
# In such a case, the wrong job may be killed.
# Ariel Meragelman suggests the following fix.
@ -26974,7 +26974,7 @@ COMMAND7</programlisting>
then
echo "Variable is set."
fi # Variable has been set in current script,
#+ or is an an internal Bash variable,
#+ or is an internal Bash variable,
#+ or is present in environment (has been exported).
# Could also be written [[ ${variable-x} != x || ${variable-y} != y ]]
@ -33638,7 +33638,7 @@ bad_command arg1 arg2
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Bash now supports the the
<para>Bash now supports the
<replaceable>\u</replaceable>
and <replaceable>\U</replaceable>
<firstterm>Unicode</firstterm> escape.</para>

@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
#+ you'll have to do some other choices for readability.
#
# This bashrc file is a bit overcrowded.
# Remember, it is just just an example.
# Remember, it is just an example.
# Tailor it to your needs.
#
# =============================================================== #

@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ cd_getrc ()
cd_flchar=${cd_flchar}-5
else
cd_flchar=${FLCHAR:=75}
# cd_flchar is used for for the @s &amp; @h history
# cd_flchar is used for the @s &amp; @h history
cd_lchar=${LCHAR:=35}
cd_rchar=${RCHAR:=35}
fi
@ -466,7 +466,7 @@ export CDFile=${CDFILE:=cdfile} # for the -u and -f commands #
#
typeset -i cd_lchar cd_rchar cd_flchar
# This is the number of chars to allow for the #
cd_flchar=${FLCHAR:=75} #+ cd_flchar is used for for the @s &amp; @h history#
cd_flchar=${FLCHAR:=75} #+ cd_flchar is used for the @s &amp; @h history#
typeset -ax CD CDS
#

@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ echo
#+ a block of working code for debugging purposes.
# This saves having to put a "#" at the beginning of each line,
#+ then having to go back and delete each "#" later.
# Note that the use of of colon, above, is optional.
# Note that the use of colon, above, is optional.
echo "Just before commented-out code block."
# The lines of code between the double-dashed lines will not execute.

@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ updatedb /usr &amp; # Must be run as root.
wait
# Don't run the rest of the script until 'updatedb' finished.
# You want the the database updated before looking up the file name.
# You want the database updated before looking up the file name.
locate $1

@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
#!/bin/bash
# 'echo' is fine for printing single line messages,
#+ but somewhat problematic for for message blocks.
#+ but somewhat problematic for message blocks.
# A 'cat' here document overcomes this limitation.
cat &lt;&lt;End-of-message

@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ exit 0 # CEOF:EOF
# The grid in this script has a "boundary problem."
# The the top, bottom, and sides border on a void of dead cells.
# The top, bottom, and sides border on a void of dead cells.
# Exercise: Change the script to have the grid wrap around,
# + so that the left and right sides will "touch,"
# + as will the top and bottom.

@ -26,5 +26,5 @@ exit $?
# bozo$ ./rand-string.sh my-password
# 1bdd88c4
# No, this is is not recommended
# No, this is not recommended
#+ as a method of generating hack-proof passwords.

@ -150,7 +150,7 @@ maximum=${max}
# We need to generate only positive array subscripts,
#+ so we need a displacement that that will guarantee
#+ so we need a displacement that will guarantee
#+ positive results.
disp=$((0-minimum))

@ -1787,7 +1787,7 @@ else
local routing table.
</para>
<para>
If the the machine has several IP addresses on one Ethernet interface,
If the machine has several IP addresses on one Ethernet interface,
there will be a route to each locally hosted IP in the local routing
table. This is a normal
<link linkend="list-basic-ifconfig-side-effects-up">side effect</link>

@ -1589,7 +1589,7 @@ local 127.0.0.1 from 127.0.0.1 dev lo
<command>ip route</command> to populate routing tables.
</para>
<para>
A simple rule selects a packet on the the packet's characteristics.
A simple rule selects a packet on the packet's characteristics.
Some characteristics available as selection criteria are the
source address, the destination, the type of service (ToS), the
interface on which the packet arrived, and an fwmark.

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates MULTIPLE HTML FILES as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note that the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
<!-- Change this to the path to where you have installed Norman

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates MULTIPLE HTML FILES as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note that the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
<!-- Change this to the path to where you have installed Norman

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates a SINGLE HTML FILE as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note that the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
<!-- Change this to the path to where you have installed Norman

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates MULTIPLE HTML FILES as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note that the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
<!-- Change this to the path to where you have installed Norman

@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
<!-- This stylesheet calls Norman Walsh's 'docbook.xsl' stylesheet
and therefore generates a SINGLE HTML FILE as output. -->
<!-- Note the the *order* of the import statements below is important and
<!-- Note that the *order* of the import statements below is important and
should not be changed. -->
<!-- Change this to the path to where you have installed Norman

@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
will cause loading the module to fail, since insmod won't find those functions in the kernel.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><option>-W -Wall</option>:
A programming mistake can take take your system down. You should always turn on compiler warnings, and this applies to
A programming mistake can take your system down. You should always turn on compiler warnings, and this applies to
all your compiling endeavors, not just module compilation.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><option>-isystem /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build/include</option>:

@ -138,7 +138,7 @@
number will be. There are a couple of ways to do this. First, the driver itself can print the newly assigned number and
we can make the device file by hand. Second, the newly registered device will have an entry in
<filename>/proc/devices</filename>, and we can either make the device file by hand or write a shell script to read the
file in and make the device file. The third method is we can have our driver make the the device file using the
file in and make the device file. The third method is we can have our driver make the device file using the
<function>mknod</function> system call after a successful registration and rm during the call to
<function>cleanup_module</function>.</para>
@ -303,7 +303,7 @@ static int device_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
Device_Open --; /* We're now ready for our next caller */
/* Decrement the usage count, or else once you opened the file, you'll
never get get rid of the module. */
never get rid of the module. */
MOD_DEC_USE_COUNT;
return 0;

@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
<para>When a process is done with the file, it closes it, and <function>module_close</function> is called. That function
wakes up all the processes in the queue (there's no mechanism to only wake up one of them). It then returns and the
process which just closed the file can continue to run. In time, the scheduler decides that that process has had enough
process which just closed the file can continue to run. In time, the scheduler decides that the process has had enough
and gives control of the CPU to another process. Eventually, one of the processes which was in the queue will be given
control of the CPU by the scheduler. It starts at the point right after the call to
<function>module_interruptible_sleep_on</function><footnote><para>This means that the process is still in kernel mode --

@ -150,7 +150,7 @@ int register_chrdev(unsigned int major, const char *name, struct file_operations
number will be. There are a couple of ways to do this. First, the driver itself can print the newly assigned number and
we can make the device file by hand. Second, the newly registered device will have an entry in
<filename>/proc/devices</filename>, and we can either make the device file by hand or write a shell script to read the
file in and make the device file. The third method is we can have our driver make the the device file using the
file in and make the device file. The third method is we can have our driver make the device file using the
<function>mknod</function> system call after a successful registration and rm during the call to
<function>cleanup_module</function>.</para>

@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
<para>When a process is done with the file, it closes it, and <function>module_close</function> is called. That function
wakes up all the processes in the queue (there's no mechanism to only wake up one of them). It then returns and the
process which just closed the file can continue to run. In time, the scheduler decides that that process has had enough
process which just closed the file can continue to run. In time, the scheduler decides that the process has had enough
and gives control of the CPU to another process. Eventually, one of the processes which was in the queue will be given
control of the CPU by the scheduler. It starts at the point right after the call to
<function>module_interruptible_sleep_on</function><footnote><para>This means that the process is still in kernel mode --

@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ static int device_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
/*
* Decrement the usage count, or else once you opened the file, you'll
* never get get rid of the module.
* never get rid of the module.
*/
module_put(THIS_MODULE);

@ -1914,7 +1914,7 @@ further firewall processing occurs. The datagram is accepted.
<para>
Finally, let's look at what happens when we reach the end of a
user-defined chain. To see this, we'll map the flow for a TCP datagram
destined for a port other than than the two we are handling
destined for a port other than the two we are handling
specifically, as shown in <xref linkend="X-087-2-firewall.ipchains.tcp.other">.
</para>
@ -3114,7 +3114,7 @@ accepted
<para>
Note the arguments had to be supplied and the way they've been used to
describe a datagram. The output of the command indicates that that the
describe a datagram. The output of the command indicates that the
datagram was accepted for forwarding, which is what we hoped for.
</para>

@ -496,7 +496,7 @@ articles. If we post 5 articles, they will be numbered 1 through
numbered article, and <replaceable>lowmark</replaceable> will equal 1,
the lowest active article. If article 5 is cancelled there will be no
change; <replaceable>himark</replaceable> will remain at 5 to ensure
that that article number is not reallocated and
that the article number is not reallocated and
<replaceable>lowmark</replaceable> will remain at 1, the lowest active
article. If we now cancel article 1, <replaceable>himark</replaceable>
will remain unchanged, but <replaceable>lowmark</replaceable> will now

@ -73,7 +73,7 @@ Swap: 1044216k av, 161672k used, 882544k free 199388k cached
by CPU utilization.</para>
<para>You can modify the output of <command>top</command> while
is is running. If you hit an <option>i</option>, top will no longer
it is running. If you hit an <option>i</option>, top will no longer
display idle processes. Hit <option>i</option> again to see them
again. Hitting <option>M</option> will sort by memory usage,
<option>S</option> will sort by how long they processes have been

@ -495,7 +495,7 @@ tapes</entry></row>
<para> Backups take a lot of space, which can cost quite
a lot of money. To reduce the space needed, the backups
can be compressed. There are several ways of doing this.
Some programs have support for for compression built in; for
Some programs have support for compression built in; for
example, the <option>--gzip</option> (<option>-z</option>)
option for GNU <command>tar</command> pipes the whole backup
through the <command>gzip</command> compression program, before

@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
<para>Beware of the <command>time</command> command. This is not
used to get the system time. Instead it's used to time how long
something takes. Refer the the time man page.</para>
something takes. Refer to the time man page.</para>
<para> <command>date</command> only shows or sets the software
clock. The <command>clock</command> commands synchronizes
@ -351,7 +351,7 @@ restrict 127.0.0.1
<para>Many people get the idea that instead of running the NTP
daemon, they should just setup a <command>cron</command> job
job to periodically run the <command>ntpdate</command> command.
There are 2 main disadvantages of using using this method.</para>
There are 2 main disadvantages of using this method.</para>
<para>The first is that <command>ntpdate</command> does a "brute force"
method of changing the time. So if your computer's time is off my 5

@ -33409,7 +33409,7 @@ BRU Homepage: <link linkend="prtinxfp26">http://www.